Allanigue, Ellea Ann L. Ambatali, Waldemar Antonio, Jose Vien Arenas, Theodore Samuel F.

 To

determine the difference between men and women smooth muscles  To differentiate the smooth muscle in reproductive organs and that in other tissues  To state the myoplastic second messenger involved in excitation-contraction coupling in the myometrium

 To

identify the source of Ca++ mobilized in response to action potentials in smooth muscles  To explain how an increase in myoplasmic Ca++ concentration produces contraction in myometrial smooth muscle

 To explain why force is not sustained and why the myometrium relaxes between phasic contraction  To explain why myometrial contractions are much slower than cardiac contractions .

 Smooth muscles.the muscular wall of the uterus (made up of smooth muscle) .major component of hollow organs  Myometrium .

 Men do not have uterine smooth muscles unlike women.  Men and women’s urogenital system came from the same embryonic origin which is the mesoderm. .

about 280 days after conception.Childbirth includes both labor (the process of birth) and delivery. it refers to the entire process as an infant makes its way from the womb down the birth canal to the outside world. but it may be started by artificial means if the pregnancy continues past 42 weeks gestation. many women experience a much longer or shorter labor.  . However.  Childbirth usually begins spontaneously. about 280 days after conception. The average length of labor is about 14 hours for a first pregnancy and about eight hours in subsequent pregnancies.

.

.

airways) have the same contractile activity and properties in general. . rectum. blood vessels. Smooth muscles in the reproductive organ (myometrium) and the smooth muscles of other tissues (GIT. bladder.

.  The electrical synapse of these muscles creates numerous gap junctions. the multi unit smooth muscle fibers have limited. if any. In contrast. gap junctions.  Single unit smooth muscles are held together via electric adjacent cells by which are responsible for synonymous function. Single unit and multi unit smooth muscle groups create the two distinct muscular groups of the functional categories.  The cells rely on individual stimulation and respond to the individual stimulation on an independent basis. This means the muscle fibers act as a single unit.

. A skeletal muscle is created with one conjunction of a single somatic nerve fiber. Smooth muscles and skeletal muscles vary greatly when considering neural control.

 Major component of hollow organs -may increase resistance to flow (blood vessels) -may alter dimension (bladder. uterus)  Contraction – “thick filament regulated”  Able to remain contracted for long periods at low energy cost .

 Can contract in response to electrical or hormonal signals  Neurotransmitters  Composed of smaller and shorter fibers  Has the same principles of contraction as in skeletal muscles .

.

.

 Increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration stimulates most of the smooth muscle contractions.  It is the same in all muscles .

.

 Ca++ entry from the extracellular space can contribute to activation.  The .major source of activator Ca++ for phasic contractions is the sarcoplasmic reticulum  Ca++ diffusion (inward) through voltagegated channels is the major cause of depolarization.

.

crease in Ca++ Ca++ binds to calmodulin Calmodulin-Ca++ complex  Calmodulin-Ca++ complex binds to myosin kinase  Myosin kinase phosphorylates crossbridges with PO4 (from hydrolysis of ATP)  Phosphorylated crossbridges are able to attach to thin filaments and cycle generate contraction  In .

.

. the myoplasmic Ca++ concentration is reduced to low values by Ca++ pumps and Na+/Ca++ exchangers. After the burst of action potentials.

cross bridges are inactivated enzymatically through the removal of the PO4 group by myosin phosphatase. Ca++ dissociates from calmodulin.  The . and myosin kinase reverts to its inactive form.

.

A cardiac contraction is basically a twitch associated with a single action potential contractions of physically active single-unit smooth muscles are basically short tetani associated with a burst of action potentials.  Strong .

 Isoforms of myosin expressed in smooth muscle have intrinsically lower rates of ATP hydrolysis and crossbridge cycling.  Covalent . regulation by phosphorylation allows further reductions in cycling rates in latch.

Inotisol triphosphate  #2.  #3. . Single unit. #1. as opposed to men. Women have a uterus. who don’t. Randomly arranged in figures of 8 around blood vessels for expulsion of fetus and resistance to flow.

ECF Phasic contractions for blood flor towards fetus. – intrinsically lower rates of atp hydrolysis and cross bridge cycling. Decrease in blood flow after expulsion of fetus (to prevent hemorrhage).  #7.  #6. . Latch mechanism. #4. so fetus wouldn’t be impeded of blood flow.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful