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ANALYSIS

PREPARED BY:

Engr. Fernan D. Dematera

Introduction

A pair of terminals through which a current

may enter or leave a network is known as a port.

Two-terminal devices or elements (such as

resistors, capacitors, and inductors) result in

one-port networks. Most of the circuits we have

dealt with so far are two-terminal or one-port

circuits, represented in the figure below.

Introduction

In general, a network may have n ports. A

port is an access to the network and consists of

a pair of terminals; the current entering one

terminal leaves through the other terminal so

that the net current entering the port equals zero.

A two-port network is an electrical network

with two separate ports for input and output as

shown in the figure such as transistors and

transformers.

One-port network

- One pair of terminal

- Current entering the port = current leaving the port

A port : an access to a network and consists of two terminals

DEFINITION

+

V

I

Linear

network

I

+

V

1

I

1

Linear

network

+

V

2

I

2

I

2

I

1

Two-port network

- Two pairs of terminal : two-port

- Current entering a port = current leaving a port

- V

1

,V

2

, I

1

and I

2

are related using two-port network parameters

- In this chapter, we will study on six sets of these parameters

Impedance parameters

Hybrid parameters

Admittance parameters

Transmission parameters

Output port

Input port

DEFINITION

Inverse Hybrid parameters Inverse Transmission parameters

Reasons Why We Study Two-

Port Networks

1. Such networks are useful in communications,

control systems, power systems, & electronics. For

example, they are used in electronics to model

transistors and to facilitate cascaded design.

2. Knowing the parameters of a two-port network

enables us to treat it as a black box when

embedded within a larger network. To characterize

a two-port network requires that we relate the

terminal quantities V1, V2, I1, and I2 in the previous

out of which two are independent. The various

terms that relate these voltages and currents are

called parameters.

NETWORK PARAMETERS

The six parameters used to model a

two-port network are the following:

1. IMPEDANCE PARAMETERS

2. ADMITTANCE PARAMETERS

3. HYBRID PARAMETERS

4. INVERSE HYBRID

5. TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS

6. INVERSE TANSMISSION PARAMETERS

NETWORK PARAMETERS

The parameters relate the input and output

port variables as:

The parameters can be calculated or

measured by short-circuiting or open-circuiting

the appropriate input or output port.

NETWORK PARAMETERS

A two-port network is reciprocal if

z12 = z21, y12 = y21, h12 =h21,

g12 = g21, T = 1 or t = 1. Networks that

have dependent sources are not

reciprocal. Three important relationships

of parameters are;

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

(

=

(

2

1

22 21

12 11

2

1

I

I

z z

z z

V

V

Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

NETWORK PARAMETERS

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

z

11

and z

21 Z

11

and Z

21

+

V

2

I

2

V

1

I

1

Output port : open

I

2

= 0

Input port : Apply voltage source

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

1 11 1

I z V =

0 I

1

1

11

2

I

V

z

=

=

1 21 2

I z V =

0 I

1

2

21

2

I

V

z

=

=

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

z

12

and z

22

V

1

Input port : opened

I

1

= 0

Output port : Apply voltage source

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

2 12 1

I z V =

0 I

2

1

12

1

I

V

z

=

=

2 22 2

I z V =

0 I

2

2

22

1

I

V

z

=

=

V

2

I

2

I

1

=0

+

V

1

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

Equivalent circuit based on these equations:

+

V

1

+

V

1

I

1

I

2

11

z

22

z

21 1

z I

+

+

12 2

z I

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL

ammeter

A

V

I

Reciprocal

network

A

V

I

Reciprocal

network

Voltage source and ideal ammeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL

Voltage source and ideal ammeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

z

12

= z

21

Can be replaced with T-equivalent circuit:

Z

11

-z

12

Z

22

-z

12

Z

12

+

V

1

+

V

2

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL

Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL

z

11

= z

22

Impedance parameters (z parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

I z I z V + =

2 22 1 21 2

I z I z V + =

Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL

Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL

If the two-port network is reciprocal and symmetrical, only 2

parameters need to be determined

Admittance parameters (y parameters)

(

=

(

2

1

22 21

12 11

2

1

V

V

y y

y y

I

I

2 12 1 11 1

V y V y I + =

2 22 1 21 2

V y V y I + =

Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement

Admittance parameters (y parameters)

y

11

and y

21

Output port : shorted

V

2

= 0

Input port : Apply current source

1 11 1

V y I =

0 V

1

1

11

2

V

I

y

=

=

1 21 2

V y I =

0 V

1

2

21

2

V

I

y

=

=

2 12 1 11 1

V y V y I + =

2 22 1 21 2

V y V y I + =

+

V

1

+

V

2

= 0

I

2

I

1

Admittance parameters (y parameters)

y

12

and y

22

Input port : shorted

V

1

= 0

Output port : Apply current source

2 12 1

V y I =

0 V

2

1

12

1

V

I

y

=

=

2 22 2

V y I =

0 V

2

2

22

1

V

I

y

=

=

2 12 1 11 1

V y V y I + =

2 22 1 21 2

V y V y I + =

+

V

1

=0

+

V

2

I

2

I

1

Admittance parameters (y parameters)

Equivalent circuit based on these equations:

2 12 1 11 1

V y V y I + =

2 22 1 21 2

V y V y I + =

+

V

1

+

V

2

I

1

I

2

11

y 22

y

2 12

V y

1 21

V y

Admittance parameters (y parameters)

Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL

Current source and ideal voltmeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

y

12

= y

21

Can be replaced with t-equivalent circuit:

y

11

+ y

12

y

22

+ y

12

-y

12

+

V

1

+

V

2

2 12 1 11 1

V y V y I + =

2 22 1 21 2

V y V y I + =

Admittance parameters (y parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

V y V y I + =

2 22 1 21 2

V y V y I + =

Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL :

y

11

= y

22

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

(

=

(

2

1

22 21

12 11

2

1

V

I

h h

h h

I

V

2 12 1 11 1

V h I h V + =

2 22 1 21 2

V h I h I + =

Some two port network cannot be expressed in terms z or y

parameters but can be expressed in terms of h parameters

Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement

h

11

and h

21

Output port : shorted

V

2

= 0

Input port : Apply current source

1 11 1

I h V =

0 V

1

1

11

2

I

V

h

=

=

1 21 2

I h I =

0 V

1

2

21

2

I

I

h

=

=

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

V h I h V + =

2 22 1 21 2

V h I h I + =

(O)

+

V

1

+

V

2

= 0

I

2

I

1

h

12

and h

22

Input port : opened

I

1

= 0

Output port : Apply voltage source

2 12 1

V h V =

0 I

2

1

12

1

V

V

h

=

=

2 22 2

V h I =

0 I

2

2

22

1

V

I

h

=

=

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

V h I h V + =

2 22 1 21 2

V h I h I + =

V

2

I

2

I

1

=0

+

V

1

(S)

Equivalent circuit based on these equations:

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

V h I h V + =

2 22 1 21 2

V h I h I + =

+

+

V

1

I

1

I

2

+

V

2

h

11

h

11

V

2

h

21

I

1

h

22

Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL

Current source and ideal voltmeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

h

12

= -h

21

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

V h I h V + =

2 22 1 21 2

V h I h I + =

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

2 12 1 11 1

V h I h V + =

2 22 1 21 2

V h I h I + =

Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL :

h

11

h

22

h

12

h

21

= 1

Transmission parameters (t parameters)

(

=

(

2

2

1

1

I

V

D C

B A

I

V

2 2 1

BI AV V =

2 2 1

DI CV I =

Used to express the sending end voltage an current in terms

of receiving end voltage and current

+

V

1

I

1

Linear

network

+

V

2

-I

2

I

2

I

1

receiving end

sending end

Output port : opened I

2

= 0

2 1

AV V =

2 1

CV I =

Transmission parameters (h parameters)

2 2 1

BI AV V =

2 2 1

DI CV I =

0 I

2

1

2

V

V

A

=

=

0 I

2

1

2

V

I

C

=

=

Output port : shorted V

2

= 0

2 1

BI V =

2 1

DI I =

0 V

2

1

2

I

V

B

=

=

0 V

2

1

2

I

I

D

=

=

For RECIPROCAL network, AD BC = 1

For SYMMETRICAL network, A = D

Relationships between parameters

If a two-port network can be presented by different set of parameters, then

there exists relationships between parameters.

e.g. relationships between z and y parameters:

(

=

(

2

1

22 21

12 11

2

1

I

I

z z

z z

V

V

(

=

(

2

1

1

22 21

12 11

2

1

V

V

z z

z z

I

I

We know that

(

=

(

2

1

22 21

12 11

2

1

V

V

y y

y y

I

I

Therefore

1

22 21

12 11

22 21

12 11

z z

z z

y y

y y

(

=

(

1

22 21

12 11

z z

z z

(

z

11 21

12 22

z z

z z

A

(

where

21 12 22 11 z

z z z z = A

Therefore,

z

22

11

z

y

A

=

z

12

12

z

y

A

=

z

21

21

z

y

A

=

z

11

22

z

y

A

=

The conversion formulae can be obtained from the conversion table

e.g. on page 869 of Alexander/Sadiku

Relationships between parameters

Interconnection of networks

Complex large network can be modeled with interconnected two-port networks

Simplify the analysis /synthesis

Simplify the design

Parameters of interconnected two-port networks can be obtained easily:

depending on the type of parameters and type of connections:

Series: z parameters

Parallel: y parameters

Cascade: transmission parameters

Interconnection of networks

Series: z parameters

[z] = [z

a

] + [z

b

]

+

V

2a

I

1a

I

1b

I

2a

I

2b

+

V

1b

+

V

1a

+

V

2b

+

V

1

+

V

2

z

a

z

b

z

+

V

2

+

V

1

I

1

I

2

Interconnection of networks

Parallel: y parameters

[y] = [y

a

] + [y

b

]

y

+

V

2

+

V

1

I

1

I

2

I

1a

I

2a

+

V

1b

+

V

1a

+

V

2a

+

V

2b

+

V

1

+

V

2

y

a

y

b

I

1

I

2

I

1b

I

2b

Interconnection of networks

Cascade: t parameters

[t] = [t

a

][t

b

]

t

+

V

2

+

V

1

I

1

-I

2

I

1a

-I

2a

+

V

1b

+

V

1a

+

V

2b

+

V

1

+

V

2

t

a

t

b

I

1

I

1b

-I

2b

+

V

2a

-I

2

NETWORK PARAMETERS

Two-port networks may be connected

in series, in parallel, or in cascade.

In the series connection the z

parameters are added, in the parallel

connection the y parameters are added,

and in the cascade connection the

transmission parameters are multiplied in

the correct order.

APPLICATIONS

The network parameters are

specifically applied in the analysis of

transistor circuits and the synthesis of

ladder LC networks. Network parameters

are especially useful in the analysis of

transistor circuits because these circuits

are easily modeled as two-port networks.

LC ladder networks, important in the

design of passive lowpass filters,

resemble cascaded T networks and are

therefore best analyzed as two-ports.

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