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Lecture 2: Number Systems

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

1

Objectives

After

**completing this lecture you will be able to:
**

Explain different positionally-waited number systems Translate numbers between number systems Appraise binary number system

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

2

Agenda

Number

bases used with computers Why binary? Number Base Conversion Conversion of Fractions

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

3

**Number bases used with computers
**

**Decimal, b=10 a={0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} Binary, b=2 a={0,1} Octal, b=8 a={0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7} Hexadecimal, b=16 a={0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F}
**

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology 4

03/12/09

**Why Binary is used in Computers?
**

Electronic components that represent binary are better than those that represent binary because of;

Easier to design Cost effective

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

5

**Number Base Conversion
**

Decimal to Binary

divide the number successively by 2, and after each division record the remainder which is either 1 or 0. example, 12310 becomes 123/2 =61 r=1 61/2 = 30 r=1 30/2 = 15 r=0 15/2 = 7 r=1 7/2 =3 r=1 3/2 =1 r=1 1/2 =0 r=1 12310 = 11110112

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

6

**Number Base Conversion
**

Decimal to Octal

Divide the number by 8 remainder is a number in the range 0 to 7. example, 462910 becomes 4629/8= 578 r=5 578/8= 72 r=2 72/8= 9 r=0 9/8 =1 r=1 1/8 =0 r=1 462910 =110258

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

7

**Number Base Conversion
**

Decimal to Hexadecimal

Divide the number by 16 remainder lies in the decimal range 0 to 15, corresponding to the hexadecimal range 0 to F. example, 5324110 becomes 53241/16 = 3327 r=9 3327/16 = 207 r=15 = F 207/16 =12 r=15 = F 12/16 =0 r=12 = C 5324110=CFF916

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

8

**Number Base Conversion
**

Binary to Decimal

Take the left most none zero bit, double it and add it to the bit on its right. Now take this result, double it and add it to the next bit on the right. Continue in this way until the least significant bit has been added in.

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

9

**Number Base Conversion
**

Binary to Decimal (cont’d)

For example, 10101112 becomes

**Therefore, 10101112 = 8710
**

03/12/09 Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology 10

**Number Base Conversion
**

Binary to Octal

Form the bits into groups of three starting at the binary point and moving leftwards. Replace each group of three bits with the corresponding octal digit (0 to 7). For example, 110010111012 becomes 11 001 011 101 3 1 3 5

**Therefore,110010111012 = 31358
**

03/12/09 Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology 11

**Number Base Conversion
**

Binary to Hexadecimal

The binary number is formed into groups of four bits starting at the decimal point. Each group is replaced by a hexadecimal digit from 0 to 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. For example, 110010111012 becomes 110 0101 1101 6 5 D Therefore, 110010111012 = 65D16

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

12

**Number Base Conversion
**

Octal to Binary

Each octal digit is simply replaced by its 3-bit binary equivalent. It is important to remember that (say) 3 must be replaced by 011 and not 11. For example, 413578 becomes 4 1 3 5 7 100 001 011 101 111 Therefore,413578 = 1000010111011112.

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

13

**Number Base Conversion
**

Hexadecimal to Binary

Each hexadecimal digit is replaced by its 4-bit binary equivalent. For example AB4C16 becomes A B 4 C

1010

1011

0100

1100

Therefore, AB4C16 = 10101011010011002

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

14

**Number Base Conversion
**

Octal to Decimal

Take the left-most digit, Multiply it by eight and add it to the digit on its right. Then, multiply this subtotal by eight and add it to the next digit on its right. The process ends when the left-most digit has been added to the subtotal. For example, 64378 becomes 6 4 3 7 48 52 416 419 3352 3359 Therefore, 64378 = 335910

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

15

**Number Base Conversion
**

Hexadecimal to Decimal

**The method is identical to the procedures for binary and octal except that 16 is used as a multiplier.
**

1 A 16 26 416 428 C

For example, 1AC16 becomes

Therefore, 1AC16

=

42810

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

16

Conversion of Fractions

Converting Binary Fractions to Decimal Fractions

**For example, consider the conversion of 0.011012 into decimal form. 0.0 0 1 1 0 1
**

1/2

13/32 Therefore, 0.011012 = 13/32.

13/16 13/16

5/8 13/8

1/4 5/4

1/2

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

17

Conversion of Fractions

Converting Decimal Fractions to Binary Fractions

For example, 0.687510 becomes

0.6875 0.3750 0.7500 0.5000

x x x x

2 2 2 2

1.3750 0.7500 1.5000 1.0000

0.0000 x 2 ends the process Therefore, 0.687510 = 0.10112

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

18

Thank You

Lecture 03: Computer Arithmetic

03/12/09

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

19

by ariff alavi

Computer Fundamentals Lecture 02 Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology (SLIIT)

Computer Fundamentals Lecture 02 Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology (SLIIT)

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