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CHEMICAL FORMULAE

At the end of this lesson, students should be able to: State the meaning of chemical formulae State the meaning of empirical formula State the meaning of molecular formula Determine the empirical and molecular formulae of substances Compare and contrast the empirical formula with molecular formula Solve numerical problems involving empirical and molecular formulae

Chemical Formulae A representation of a chemical substance using letters for atoms and subscript numbers to show the numbers of each type of atoms that are present in the substance.
Formula of water : HO
H is the symbol which represents hydrogen. O is the symbol which represents oxygen. The number 2 represents the number of hydrogen atoms present.

FORMULA
CHO (1) Empirical formula CHO (2) Molecular formula 2HCO

(3) Ionic formula


HOH (4) Structural formula

Empirical formula shows the simplest whole ratio of atoms in a substance. Molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms in a substance. Important! The empirical formula might or might not be the same as the actual molecular formula! The empirical formula = molecular formula for IONIC COMPOUNDS ALWAYS!

Dear 4S2,

Percent to mass Mass to mole Divide by small Multiply til whole.

Sincerely,

Empirical formula

The following is the percentage composition of calcium carbonate:Ca=40%, C=12%, O=48%. Calculate the empirical formula of calcium carbonate. (Relative atomic mass:Ca,40; C,12; O,16) Solution:
Element
Mass of element (g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles

Calcium, Ca
40 40 =1 40 1 =1 1 1

Carbon,C
12 12 =1 12 1 =1 1 1

Oxygen, O
48 48 =3 16 3 =3 1 3

Simplest ratio of moles

Empirical formula: CaCO

1.44 g of magnesium combines chemically with 0.96 g of oxygen to form an oxide. What is the empirical formula of the oxide? Percent to mass (Relative atomic mass: O,16; Mg,24) Mass to mole Divide by small Multiply til whole. Solution:
Element Mass of element (g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Magnesium, Mg 1.44 1.44 = 0.06 24 0.06 =1 0.06 1 Oxygen, O 0.96 0.96 = 0.06 16 0.06 =1 0.06 1

Empirical formula: MgO

Simplest ratio of moles

0.91 g of aluminium burns in air to form 1.7 g of aluminium oxide. What is the formula of aluminium oxide? (Relative atomic mass: Al,27; O,16) Solution:
Element Mass of element (g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles Aluminium, Al 0.91 0.91 = 0.034 27 0.034 =1 0.034 1x2 =2 Oxygen, O 1.7 0.91 = 0.79 0.79 = 0.05 16
0.05 0.034

= 1.5 1.5 x 2 =3

Empirical formula: AlO

Relationship between empirical and molecular formula of a substance.


Molecular formula = ( Empirical formula ) n

Whereby n is a positive integer. Example: Empirical Molecular


Compound Water Ethene formula HO CH formula (HO) = HO (CH) = CH (CHO) = CHO

n 1 2

Glucose

CHO

Example:
The decomposition of 7.36 g of a compound produces 6.93 g of oxygen. The rest of the mass is hydrogen. If the relative molecular mass of this compound is 34.0 g, calculate its molecular formula.(Relative atomic mass: H,1; O,16) Solution:
Element Mass of element(g) Number of moles of atoms Hydrogen, H 0.43 0.43 1 = 0.43 0.43 =1 0.43 1 Oxygen, O 6.93 6.93 = 0.43 16
Molecular formula =(empirical formula)n

Ratio of moles

0.43 =1 0.43
1

34 = (HO) n 34 = (1 + 17 ) n n = 34 / 17 n=2 Thus, molecular formula is HO

Simplest ratio of moles

Empirical formula: HO

RM 100

RM 200

RM 300

RM 400

RM 500

RM 600

RM 700

RM 8OO

RM 1000

RM 1500

RM 3000

What is the meaning of empirical formulae. A) Formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element in the compound. B) Formula that shows the simplest ratio of atoms of each elements are bonded together C) Formula that shows how the atoms of each elements are bonded together. D) Formula that shows the type of element in the compound.

Which of the following is the empirical formula of CHO? A) CHO B) CHO C) CHO D) CHO

Which compound has the empirical formula of CHO? A) HCOOH B) CHCOOH C) CHCOO CH D) HCOOCH

The diagram shows the molecular formula for glucose. CHO Which of the following substance has similar empirical formula as that of glucose?
Substance A B C D Ethanol Ethylene oxide Ethanoic acid Methyl ethanoate Molecular Formula CHO CHO CHO CHO

In an experiment, 24 g of element X react with 32 g sulphur to form a compound. What is the empirical formula of that compound? [RAM: X=6; S=32] A) XS B) XS C) XS D) XS

A sample of iron oxide contains 5.6 g of iron and 2.4 g of oxygen, what is the empirical formula of this compound? A) FeO B) FeO C) FeO D) FeO

0.32 g of metal X combines with 0.36 g of nonmetal Y. What is the empirical formula for this compound?[RAM: X=64, Y=35.5] A) XY B) XY C) XY D) XY

The table shows the mass of elements M and O in an oxide, and the relative atomic mass of element M and O.
Element Mass/ g Relative atomic mass M 5.6 56 O 2.4 16

The empirical formula for oxide of M is A) MO B) MO C) MO D) MO

The table shows the mass of elements M and O in an oxide, and the relative atomic mass of element M and O.
Element Mass / g Relative atomic mass M O 1.62 27 1.44 16

Which of the following formulae is the empirical formula for the oxide of M? A) MO B) MO C) MO D) MO

11 g oxide M reduced to form 6.2 g metal M. Empirical formulae of oxide M is. [RAM: O=16; M=31] A) MO B) MO C) MO D) MO

Stainless steel used to make surgical scalpels contains 71.5% iron, 18.0% chromium, 8.0% nickel, and 2.5% other elements. If the mass of surgical scalpels is 60.0g, what is the mass of iron in it? A) 4.8 g B) 10.8 g C) 42.9 g D) 71.5 g