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Introduction to Digital Design


Dr. Chetan B. Bhatt

Chetan B. Bhatt
E mail: chetan_bhatt@yahoo.com Course web site: http://www.vgecg.ac.in/elear n/

Presentation Outline
Engineering Design Systems Analog v/s Digital

Signals Systems (Examples) Comparing both systems

Digital systems and ICT Course Outline

What is engineering?

The main task of engineering is to find and deliver optimal solutions to real life problems, within the given material, technological, economic, social, and environmental constraints, through, the application of scientific, technological, and engineering knowledge. Engineering refers to the practice of organizing the design, construction and operation of any artifice which transforms the physical world around us to meet some recognized need.

Required abilities
Our passed out students should demonstrate that they have: An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data. An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams

a.

b.
c. d.

e. An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems f. An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility g. An ability to communicate effectively h. The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context

i.

A recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning j. A knowledge of contemporary issues k. An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.

Design
Design has different connotations (associated meaning) in different fields. Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system

System

A system is a set of interconnected components forming an integrated whole to serve some purpose.

Common characteristics of Systems

System has characteristics as


It has structure; it contains parts that are directly or indirectly related to each other It has behavior; it contains processes that transform inputs into outputs It has interconnectivity; the parts and processes are connected by structural and/or behavioral relationship A systems structure or behavior can be decomposed via subsystems and subprocesses.

System
O U T P U T S

I N P U T S

System

Analog System
Analog system processes signal which is continuous in nature and assumes any value within the range. Analog signals:

Digital System

The word digital comes from the same source Digital system processes signal as which word digit and is discrete in nature the and modeled with digitus (the Latin two values 1 and 0 (assigned for word for finger), as HIGH or LOW, FALSE or TRUE, fingers are used OPEN or CLOSE etc.) for discrete counting. Digital system processes digital data

Digital signals:
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

Signal
Signal is characterized by an amplitude, frequency, and phase. Any physical parameter varying in either time and/or space. Digital signal are modeled by assigning 1 and 0 to amplitude or frequency or phase within certain range.

Examples of digital signal

Examples:
Switches Transistor - Transistor Logic (TTL) circuit 1 corresponds to 2.8 V to 5 V RS232C standard assign 1 to the voltage within range of -3 V to -25 V and 0 to the voltage within the range of +3 V to +25V Modem assign 1 to 1240Hz and 0 to 1040Hz Teletype assign 1 to current in the range of 16 mA to 20 mA and 0 to current in the range of 0 mA to 4 mA.

Analog signals: Examples

In nature all the signals are analog. For example


atmospheric temperature, pressure, Water flowing in pipe line Water level in overhead tank

Analog signals are converted to digital data using Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) to process it with digital systems. After processing many times it is converted in to analog signal using Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)

Digital system

Digital Inputs

Digital Outputs

A D Analog Inputs C

Digital System

D A C Analog

Outputs

Advantages of Digital System


Computational flexibility (Programmable) Ease of storage, manipulation, and retrieval of data. (Memory) High Noise immunity (Robust, Reliable, Quality) Better user interface (User friendly)

Analog versus Digital


Analog Voltage meter Digital Voltage meter

103.5

About 100

Analog has Ambiguity Digital has only one interpretation


Analog Clock Digital Clock

1:56 pm
1:56 About 2:00 1:56

1:50

Noise immunity
Noise corrupt the signal of information. Digital signals are immune to noise.

Noise immunity
Noise corrupt the signal of information. Digital signals are immune to noise.

OUTPUT INPUT NOISE MARGIN

LOGIC - 1

LOGIC - 1 INVALID

LOGIC - 0

LOGIC - 0

Use of digital systems

Digital systems are now a days very common in real life. It is used in simple domestic appliances to very sophisticated space crafts.
Traffic light control Elevator Digital Camera Mobile phone, tablet, laptop CT SCAN (Medical applications) Space craft Industrial Control and many .. many ..more

DIGITAL SYSTEM AND ICT

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom

Context Independencies Wisdom

Data Knowledg Raw signals e Numbers Information Information Relation attached to data Understanding Data Knowledge Attach purpose (reason, principal, rationale) and competence (know how, ability) to information Wisdom Generalization of purpose or competence in multiple domains (Context independent)
Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 25

Defining ICT
ICT is an acronym for Information and Communication Technology ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in digital form. The acronym ICT covers three words Information (How information is useful???) Communication (How communication will improve the way we work???) Technology (What are the right techniques to be used to exploit this advancements)

Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 26

COURSE OUTLINE

Course objectives

After completing the course you will be able to


Design digital system building blocks Use tools used by industry in designing digital system

Topics
Logic gates Number systems Boolean algebra Combinational digital systems Sequential digital systems Design of ALU, Memory, Bus controller, Decoders, and other building blocks of digital system. Design using programmable devices such as PLA, PLD, CPLD, and FPGA