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Chapter 11

Data Structures

After reading this chapter, the reader should be able to:
Understand arrays and their usefulness.

Understand records and the difference between an array and a record.
Understand the concept of a linked list and the difference between an array and a linked list. Understand when to use an array and when to use a linked-list.

Data Structures

Data structure uses a collection of related variables that can be accessed individually or as a whole. Data structure a scheme for
 

organizing related pieces of data. allowing different operations to be performed on the data. files lists arrays records trees tables

The basic types of data structures include:
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 



Array a fixed-size, sequenced collection of elements of the same data type.
The subscripts indicate the ordinal number of the element counting from the beginning of the array.

Twenty individual variables
Figure 11-1

Figure 11-2

Processing individual variables

Figure 11-3

Arrays with subscripts and indexes

Figure 11-4

Processing an array

Figure 11-5

Frequency array

Show the number of elements with the same value found in a series of numbers.

Figure 11-6


A pictorial representation of a frequency array.

Figure 11-7- Part I

Two-dimensional array

Figure 11-8

Memory layout

Row-major storage



Record a collection of related elements, possibly of different types, having a single name. Each element in a record is called a field.
all elements – same type  Record: elements – same or different types.
 Array:

Figure 11-9


The elements in a record can be of the same or different types. But all elements in the record must be related.


Linked list

Linked list an ordered collection of data in which each element contains the location of the next element. Each element contains two parts: data and link. The link contains a pointer (an address) that identifies the next element in the list.
Singly linked list The link in the last element contains a null pointer, indicating the end of the list.

Figure 11-10

Linked lists

Figure 11-11


  

Nodes : the elements in a linked list.
The nodes in a linked list are called self-referential records. Each instance of the record contains a pointer to another instance of the same structural type.

Figure 11-12

Inserting a node

Figure 11-13

Deleting a node

Figure 11-14

Traversing a list