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Research
• When some one talks about research it comes in mind as:

– Laboratory – Aprons – Chemicals etc
• It is not all that but it is more than that

Types of Problem/s Questions/ …..

Solvable Problem Ordinary Researchable Problem Problem/Q

Unsolvable Problem

Non Factual Problem

Which one from the following is a researchable Question? Candidates applied for admission in IoBM during the current year? Girls appeared for admission test in BBA program in IoBM during the current year? Candidates applied from diff provinces in admission? Cause of unrest among the students of Karachi university?

Causes of unrest among the students of Public Sector Universities?
Avoiding/control over natural calamities?

How many students are there in IoBM? 3. Cause of 90% failure result in Karachi Board? 6. Influence over Natural disasters? . How to define the term Research? 5. What is the ultimate destiny of a man? 7.Consider the following Research Problems: 1. How many students are there in MBA Day? 2. How many Universities are there in Pak? 4.

Outdated Curricula in Classes etc . Lack of Teaching Faculty f. Communication Gap d.5: qualifies for research question. Lack of Faculty Interest e. Lack of facilities b. Mismanagement c. We can say that the cause may be: a.Q.

. and even not a piece of It is not entirely an academic.Research is: “Systematic and Objective process of generating information for making decisions”. It is not some thing mysterious/puzzling cake either. [William G. rather it is an Art as well. Zikmund ] • • • Research is a hard nut to crack.

Research Problem Identification Research (when we do not know about any issue) Problem Solving Research (when we need to find the solution of known issue) .

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Research by Type of Marketing Mix Decision 11 .

The Role of Business Research Uncontrollable Controllable Variables Business Research Factors • Economy • Product • Pricing • Promotion • Distribution etc • Technology • Laws & Regulations • Social & Culture • Political Factors .

.Business Research Defined Business research is defined as the systematic and objective process of generating information for aid in making business decisions.

research (re-search) -“search again” • Business research must be objective • Detached and impersonal rather than biased • It facilitates the managerial decision process for all aspects of a business.Business Research • Research information is neither intuitive nor haphazardly gathered. . • Literally.

Information Reduces I don’t know if we should offer on-site child care? Uncertainty .

” Artemus Ward . It’s the things we know that ain’t so.“It ain’t the things we don’t know that gets us in trouble.

"The secret of success is to know something nobody else knows. " Aristotle Onassis .

4.1. Why is it important for managers to know about research? • • • • • • Solve problems Decision making tool Competition Risk Investment Hire researchers and consultants more effectively .

.which helps in decision making.Objective.Major points of the definition: Research consists of: .Systematic and .Scientific process to Identity the problem or - to solve PROBLEM . .

A professor of sociology. These children belonged to struggling segments of society and that school was being run under problems.” . proposed one group to conduct its study exploring the future of 60 students who were studying at a suburban school. while assigning research topics to his students at a university in India. The students concluded their research with their findings that “these kids have no future and they will not be able to bring any change in their lives or their families.

” • Do you understand what research is ? . The students carried out the research and managed to locate 56 of those students to learn “they were all well placed and managed to bring a change in their lives and were leading a successful life.• Twenty years later another professor at the same university while finalizing topics for the students’ research projects had a look at the previous reports in the library. he came across this report on the school and asked his students to conduct a follow up study to see if the results drawn by the first report were valid.

Types of Business research. • 2. • 1.1. .demanding a timely solution. pure) • Is to generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved. • The findings of such research contribute to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of business.Applied research • Is to solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting.3.Basic research (fundamental.

Business Research Types Basic research Applied research .

Basic Research Example • Is executive success correlated with high need for achievement? • Are members of highly cohesive work groups more satisfied than members of less cohesive work groups? • Do consumers experience cognitive dissonance in low-involvement situations? .

Applied Research Examples • Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners to its menu? • Business research told McDonald’s it should not? • Should Procter & Gamble add a high-priced home teeth bleaching kit to its product line? • Research showed Crest Whitestrips would sell well at a retail price of $44 .

.1 Basic and applied research Source: Authors’ experience. Hedrick et al.. 2002. 1993 . Easterby-Smith et al.The Basic–Applied Continuum Figure 1.

and the respondents who provide them with the necessary data. .1. the researchers who undertake the research. • Ethical conduct applies to the organization and the members that sponsor the research.5 Ethics and business research • Ethics in business research refers to a code of conduct or expected societal norm of behavior while conducting research.

Value Should Exceed Estimated Costs Costs Value •Decreased uncertainty •Increased likelihood of a correct decision •Improved marketing performance and resulting higher profits •Research expenditures •Delay of marketing decision and possible disclosure of information to rivals •Possible erroneous research results 28 .

Determining When to Conduct Business Research • • • • Time constraints Availability of data Nature of the decision Benefits versus costs .

Costs Is sufficient time available before a managerial decision must be made? Yes Determining When to Conduct Business Research Is the information already on hand inadequate for making the decision? Yes Is the decision Yes of considerable strategic or tactical importance? Does the value of the research Yes information exceed the cost of conducting research? Conducting Business Research No No No No Do Not Conduct Business Research .Availability of Data Benefits Time Constraints Nature of the Decision vs.

Value versus Costs • Potential Value of a Business Research Effort Should Exceed Its Estimated Costs .

Value Should Exceed Estimated Costs Costs Value •Decreased certainty •Increased likelihood of a correct decision •Improved business performance and resulting higher profits •Research expenditures •Delay of business decision and possible disclosure of information to rivals •Possible erroneous research results .

Major Topics for Research in Business • General Business Conditions and Corporate Research • Financial and Accounting Research • Management and Organizational Behavior Research • Sales and Marketing Research • Information Systems Research • Corporate Responsibility Research .

finance. production.Cross-functional Teams • Cross-functional teams are composed of individuals from various organizational departments such as engineering. . and marketing who share a common purpose.

Business Research in the 21st Century • Increased globalization • Growth of the Internet and other information technologies .

Nielsen .more that 67% international business .Global Research • Business Research is increasingly global • Market knowledge is essential • A.C.

Global Business Research • General information about country economic conditions and political climate • Cultural and consumer factors • Market and competitive conditions demand estimation .

• People are connected 24 hours a day. • Distance is no longer an obstacle. • "Instantaneous" has a new meaning. • Crossing oceans is only a mouse click away.The Internet Is Transforming Society • Time is collapsing. seven days a week. .

Internet Research • Seeking facts and figures about an issue • Surveys on Web sites .

conducting experiments in which subjects are embarrassed at their lack of knowledge about products Asking about the acceptability of various prices in order to plan a price increase When stress is unavoidable.Slide 5-18a Table 5. Using special Using equipment to measure equipment and physiological responses to a techniques product or promotional message These must be properly maintained to avoid injury. even ethical research/ though the client would like to use them to create a mailing list Arriving late for a scheduled interview. Asking participants questions against their self-interest Such issues tend to place ethical standards in conflict with technical standards for accurate research. . researcher should debrief subjects afterward.5 Areas of Ethical Concern in Marketing Research Area of Concern Preserving participant’s anonymity Exposing participants to mental stress Example Ethical Standards Keeping the names of survey This is a basic standard of respondents anonymous.

(Fort Worth: The Dryden Press. Churchill. Showing subjects sample Incompletely informed consent advertisements without telling is considered ethical only if them that they will have to take there is minimal risk to a recall test afterward subjects and research cannot be practically carried out another way. such as a restore participants to their taste test in which they cannot original condition when this identify their preferred brand and occurs. unexpectedly lose confidence in their ability to judge Source: Adapted from Gilbert A. Harassing by repeatedly Coercion is unethical and requesting telephone interviews tends to bias results. Changing participants in ways Researchers should try to they could not expect. Basic Marketing Research. Jr. 1996).67-71.Slide 5-18b Table 5.5 Areas of Ethical Concern in Marketing Research Area of Concern Involving participants in research without their knowledge Example Ethical Standards Using deception Using coercion Depriving participants of their right to selfdetermination Secretly observing the behavior of Informed consent is a basic shoppers ethical standard unless minimal risk to subjects is involved and the research could not be practically carried out with consent. . reprinted by permission of the publisher. © 1992 by the Dryden Press. pp. 3rd ed.