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A TALK BY

MUJIB U. SIDDIQUI Assistant Mineral Economist (Int.) On

MARBLE MINING & PROCESSING

STONE TOOLS

DIMENSION STONES

Dimension

stone

can

be

defined

as

natural

rock

material

quarried for the purpose of obtaining blocks or slabs that meet
specifications as to size (width, length, and thickness) and shape (Barton, 1968, p. 4). Color, grain texture and pattern, and

surface
Durability

finish

of

the

stone
based

are
on

also

normal

requirements.
and

(essentially

mineral

composition

hardness and past performance), strength, and the ability of the stone to take a polish are other important selection criteria. method of finishing a stone, and the type of finish applied (Stone World, 2001, p. 106-139).

India has a long history of utilisation of stones. Towering temples,
acquisitive carvings, huge imposing palaces, monuments, musoleums, minarets, gates and artefacts speaks volumes about the use of stones, let it be the Khajuraho, Delwara temples, caves of Ajanta & Ellora, stupas of Sanchi, Konarktemple, Buland Darwaza of Fatehpur Sikri, Victory Tower ofChittorgarh, Forts of Rajasthan, U.P and Delhi all have been built using one stone or other. The Taj Mahal, beauty par excellence built in 17th century by Emperor Shahjahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal has been built using white marble from Makrana area, Nagaur Distt. of Rajasthan. Although Delwara temple at Mount Abu, built earlier than Taj Mahal could not give impetus to marble industry as the Taj had given. It has remained the trademark of India for the last three hundred years.

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such as calcite or dolomite. all of which are capable of taking a polish.MARBLE ➲ ➲ The term marble is derived from the Latin word MURMUR which itself came from Greek root ‘Marmorous’ meaning ‘Shining Stone’. ➲ ➲ Marble definition (USGS):Commercial marble includes metamorphosed lime stones and serpentine rocks. which is also known as Verde antique. An important member of this classification is serpentine marble. and comprises green-to-black serpentine.  In commercial parlance almost any rock which can take polish easily – more especially unmetamorphosed lime stones are termed as marble. which is a hydrous magnesium silicate mineral that is crisscrossed by veins of lighter minerals. . Murmur in Persian means ‘White’ and ‘Sang’ means stone hence ‘Sange-murmur’ ➲ Geological definition: A metamorphosed limestone produced by recrystallisation under condition of thermal and also regional metamorphism.

whose boundaries are fused.Why is marble so beautiful? It is largely consisting of calcite. Your eyes will never tire off looking at marble. .7 to 38 millimeters from where it is reflected by the surfaces of deeper lying crystals which gives a pleasing and cool look. This has the ability to transmit lights to a depth of 12.

True marbles (recrystallised metamorphic limestone.TYPES OF MARBLE . calciferous and cipolin (siliceous marbles) ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ · Limestone dolomite and polishable calcareous breccia · Travertine deposited from water solutions · Onyx · Calcareous alabaster · Serpentines · Ophicalcite (serpentine limestones) · Verde-antique (massive serpentine with crossed vein lets of other minerals like calcite/dolomite) .

Indian Classification of Marble ➲ BIS : 1130-1969 (reaffirmed in October 1998) for marble blocks. Chittaurgarh district. Rajasthan 6) Chocolate-brown or wood finish marble of Mandaldeh. Alwar and Dausa districts. slabs and tiles to be utilised as dimension stone has classified marbles into 25 different categories comprising 7 categories under a broad group of white marbles and 18 categories under a group of coloured marbles . 8 new varieties are also in the trade The important new types not included in BIS classification are: ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ 1) Yellow marble of Jaisalmer 2) Pista marble (amphibolite variety) of Andhi-Jhiri belt. Jaipur. Rajasthan 8) Blue marble of Desuri in Pali district. Rajasthan 5) Parrot green marble of Jhilo in Sikar district. Rajasthan 7) Purple marble of Tripura Sundari in Banswara district. Rajasthan 4) Chocolate-brown and English teak wood marble of Jodhpur district. Churu district. Rajasthan . Rajasthan 3) Brown green and golden ultramafics of Dunkar.

.International Classification of marble Group A Sound marbles with uniform and favourable working qualities containing no geological flaws or voids. but less favourable working qualities may have natural faults such as hairline cracks. a limited amount of wasting. The soundness classifications merely indicate what method and amount of repair and fabrication is necessary prior or during installation. voids. This group comprises many of the highly coloured marbles significant for their decorative values. sticking. voids. geological flaws. Liners and other forms of reinforcement are used when necessary. Group D Marbles similar to Group C but containing a larger proportion of natural faults such as cracks. voids and inclusions. Group C Marbles with some variation in working qualities. discolouration. It is standard practice to repair these variations by one or more of several methods . sticking and filling may be required. Group B Marbles similar in character to the preceding group. as based on standard trade practices. veins and lines of separation are common. maximum variations in working qualities and requiring more of the same methods of finishing. filling or cementing.wasting.

Delhi System marbles are located in Alwar Series and Ajabgarh Series of Rajasthan. Udaipur and Sirohi areas of Rajasthan. Sakoli Series of Madhya Pradesh and Chilpi Series of Maharashtra. Ajmer. Marble belonging to Vindhyan System is of creamy. Mewar.Resources of Marble Geological distribution: Dharwar System: The marble belonging to Dharwar System is mostly distributed in Aravali and Raialo Series of Rajasthan. Bijawar series of Madhya Pradesh and Kaladgi Series of Karnataka. Jurassic System Fossiliferous limestones of Jurassic System occurring in Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan take very good polish. grey. Cuddapah and Delhi Systems Marble deposits of Cuddapah System are located in the Papaghani Series of Andhra Pradesh. Danta and Palanpur area of Gujarat. and Narnaul area of Haryana. and Guntur & Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh. Champaner Series of Gujarat. Bhima Series are developed in Bijapur and Gulburga districts of Karnataka. Kishangarh. . Chirakhan and Bowarle in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh. Vindhyan System It is mostly found in Morena district of Madhya Pradesh. Marbles of Ajabgarh Series are exposed around Jaipur Bharatpur. bluish and buff in colours and is capable of taking a good polish. Cretaceous System Coraline limestone belonging to Bagh Beds of Upper Cretaceous age furnish a very handsome marble capable of taking a good polish and are located at Kherwan.

Banswara.Rajsamand.Churu. Banakantha dist. Sikar. Chappra-Bibipur. Junewani.Chittorgarh. Jarivav.Deolapar. Zainpur. Kumbheri. Harda.Nagaur. Ambaji.Bundi. Pauni. Kandri.Udaipur . Chargaon. etc.Jaisalmer. Madhya Pradesh : Katni.Jodhpur.Bhilwara. Jammu & Kashmir : Doda and Kupwada districts. Chhuchupura Marble deposit in Vadodra Haryana : Antri – Beharipur.Nellore districts Gujarat : Ambuja Marble deposit.Jaipur. Rajasthan:20Districts : Ajmer. Dausa. Islampur and DhanotaDhancoli in Mahendergarh districts.Jalore.Bharaj.Geographical Distribution Andhra Pradesh: Khamam.Cuddapah.Alwar. Mansar. Narsinghpur. Kateshwar. Chorbaoli. districts Khikla etc. Maharashtra: Near villages Katta-Hiwara.Pali. Sidhi and Jhabua districts. Nangal durg. Kadbikhera. Jabalpur.Dungarpur. in Nagpur district. Sakaritola.

Resources of Marble 1.4.2005 (UNFC) (Grade-wise) (000 t) (Cat 121 & 122) Cat 333) (Max.) Grade Total White colour Off colour Unclassified Not known Reserve 4700 373 108 0 4219 Resources 178938 8193 677435 1080531 21779 Total 1792638 8566 677543 1080531 25998 .

State wise Resources of Marble.4.2005 (UNFC) (000 tonnes) State Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana J&K Reserves 0 0 0 0 0 Resources 3 3000 93740 22328 404703 Total 3 83000 93740 22328 404703 Maharashtra Rajasthan Sikkim Uttarakhand 324 2184 0 0 57723 1118058 2382 6000 58047 1122435 2382 6000 . 1.

24% .00% Chhattisgarh Gujarat 5.61% J&K 22.63% Haryana 1.33% Sikkim 0.STATE WISE RESOURCES OF MARBLE AS ON 1.58% Maharashtra 3.25% Rajasthan 62.2005 Uttarakhand 0.23% 4.13% Andhra Pradesh 0.4.

4 11916 Sikkim Uttarakhand 2 6 Nil Nil .Total resources v/s Production State Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Total resources NMI 1. million) 83 94 22 405 Not covered 58 Not covered 1122 Nil 490 Nil Nil 245 Nil 0.4.2005 (million tonnes) Production (2005-06) (Rs.

Production Blocks Khandas Luffers Slabs Tiles Karezy Artefacts Statues Garden Furniture ➲ Lattices ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ .

Million) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 14000 12000 10000 4425 5535 5443 5780 12652 Value Rs.All India Value of production .2001-02 to 2005-06 (Value: Rs.Million 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 YEAR 2004-05 2005-06 .

’000) State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan 2001-02 1435 2002-03 448 2003-04 373 2004-05 659 2005-06 695 315612 15634 294576 97278 287242 177106 312587 244845 490042 106 244845 210 4092393 362 5141838 415 4978112 415 5221400 415 11916345 .Production State-wise Value of production (Value: Rs.

005% Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh 0.873% Andhra Pradesh 0.STATE WISE PRODUCTION OF MARBLE.182% .2005-06 (VALUE WISE) Gujarat 3.003% Rajasthan 94.001% 1.935% Orissa 0.

MARBLE MINING AND PROCESSING .

CONVENTIONAL MINING .

diamond wire saw cutters.Mining of marble ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ marble mines are semi-mechanised and few are fully mechanised preferred mining method is 'Bench-Quarrying' mining machineries like line drillers. chain saws. luffers and khandas Fully mechanised mines recover about 35% regular blocks. derrick cranes. belt saws. 30% luffers and 30% khandas . loaders and tippers are used ultimate product in marble mining is parallelepiped regular blocks.

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SEMI MECHANISED MINING .

Extraction of key block .Gully or Toda making .

Toppling of Thaddi or Phada .

Use of Hydro bags for toppling Thaddi .

Block cutting from Thaddi using Wire Saw .

Block cutting or Khasra karna from Thaddi using Wire Saw .

Block shifting by fork lift .

Derrick Crane for Block Lifting .

MODERN MINING TECHNIQUES .

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Rock quality is sound to sustain load. The quality and Quantity of marble is proved by drilling. Italy is fore runner owing to its Geology. Overburden is entirely non-productive. Adopted where open pit mining is unfriendly to Environment. ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ Overburden is difficult or un-economic to move.UNDEGROUND MINING OF MARBLE ➲ ➲ ➲ Not practiced in India. .

Not suitable for selective mining. No effects on surroundings. No or less pollution. Disadvantages ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ .ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF UNDERGROUND MINING Advantages ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ Less destruction to environment. Costly product. No generation of dust. Cost intensive. Contamination of ground water.

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Processing of marble ➲ Dressing of block by single blade cutter or wire saw cutter ➲ Fixing on trolley for gang saw cutting Cutting blocks by gang saw or Circular saw Processing of marble is done mainly to get sawn slabs and tiles of varying thickness Recovery of slabs from regular blocks after processing ranges from 60 to 70 per cent ➲ ➲ ➲ .

INDUSTRY FLOW DIAGRAM QUARRY/ PRODUCERS RAW BLOCKS EXPORTS AGENTS LOCAL SALES STONE PROCESSORS SLABS/TILES SLAB DISTRBUTION WHOLE SELLERS STONE FINISHERS CONTRACTORS RETAILERS DIRECT SALES MONUMENTS ARTEFACTS ORNAMENTAL EXPORTS LOCAL SALES MUSEUMS HOTELS PERSONAL FLOORING CLADDING TABLE TOPS KITCHEN TOPS VANITIES FACADE MOSAIC SKIRTING .

Dressing Block for Gang Saw .

Multi Disc Circular Saw .

Cutting By Gang Saw .

PLACEMENT OF BLADES AND CUTTING WASTE IN GANG SAW .

Various Sizes of Slabs/Tiles .

MODERN WIRE SAW MACHINE .

VARIABLE THICKNESS OF SLABS BY WIRE SAW .

DECORATIVE PIECES CUT BY WIRE SAW .

PILLAR SECTIONS CUT BY WIRE SAW .

STRENTHENING MARBLE SLAB BY NETTING AND ALUMINIUM PANEL .

THE ART MAKERS .

Designer Tile sequence .

Inlay Work .

Inlay Work .

Inlay Work .

Inlay Work .

Decorative sofa .

Statue made from Makrana Marble .

Statue made from Makrana Marble .

Statue made from Black Marble .

CARVING USING LASER SENSOR AND CNC MACHINE .

JALI CUT BY WATER JET STAIR CASES CUT BY WIRE SAW .

Jali (Lattice ) Work .

Decorative Balls of Stone .

TRADE .

A China Hong Kong Italy Spain U.S.Major Trading countries from India Major Exports U.A.E Major Imports Italy Sri Lanka Turkey Egypt Oman Vietnam Iran .

62 . Million 1841 1894 2383 2230 2494 Per Unit Value 10.49 9.Exports of Marble (Total ) (Quantity & Value ) Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Quantity 000t 170 253 261 242 259 Value Rs.82 7.21 9.13 9.

Million) Dressed Others Year Quan Value PerUnit Quan Value PerUnit tity Value tity Value 2001-02 157 1716 13 125 9.55 2005-06 198 1611 61 883 14.48 8.64 10.43 7.92 2002-03 239 1748 14 146 10.55 8.Exports of Marble by type (Dressed & Others) (Quantity : in 000 t) .62 10.71 2004-05 202 1728 40 502 12.14 . (Value: in Rs.31 2003-04 175 1875 59 392 6.

Value of Exports of Marble vis-à-vis Granite (Total) Value: Rs. Million Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Marble 1841 1894 2383 2230 2494 Granite 18739 23746 25063 27258 34906 .

13 18.73 . Million) Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Quantity 52 87 97 134 182 Value 922 1476 1713 2564 3410 Per Unit Value 17.73 16. (Value: in Rs.96 17.65 19.Imports of Marble (Total) (Quantity : in 000 t) .

million) Year Produ ction Export 2001-02 4425 2002-03 5535 2003-04 5443 2004-05 5780 2005-06 12652 1841 1894 2383 2230 2494 Balance Imports Total A B consumption A+B 2584 922 3506 3641 1476 5117 3060 1713 4773 3550 2564 6114 10158 3410 13568 .Total Demand (Value-wise) (Rs.

DEMAND OF MARBLE (Value in Rs.3 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Series 1 DEMAND OF MARBLE 20112012 . Million) 16000 y = 2112.1x + 279.

'Building up a Database on Marble' Subgroup. 2002 framed for conservation and systematic development and scientific mining of marble throughout the country As per the export-import policy announced for the years 2004-09.'Examining Mechanisation in Marble Quarries' both the Subgroups had submitted the reports. 25174100 and 25174900 are restricted. the imports of Marble (excluding alabaster) under heading 2515 and Marble & other items under code no.POLICY ➲ Marble. ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ ➲ Group on Marble Development Subgroup. Marble Development and Conservation Rules (MDCR). 1957. and other stones are minor minerals. ➲ . as per the definition contained under Section 3 (e) of Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act.

SWOT MATRIX .

STRENGTH  Huge deposits  High quality stones  A developed quarrying base  A leading exporter of stones which is ranked 3rd in the world  Cheap availability of labour  Easy availability of indigenously developed machinery  Large domestic market  A well established distribution network within India  A large processing capacity  A tradition of stone architecture & usage .

sorting and gradation Improper packaging practices Inability to stick to a strict delivery schedule Improper installation techniques. Lack of promotion of new deposit areas Dumping of stones abroad at low prices Lack of Value addition for the export market Absence of long-term and a rational policies Absence of sales tax initiatives to the stone craft industry Lack of understanding about the need for testing of stones Lack of testing facilities in Northern India Unorganised Lack of education and training facilities Lack of global outlook Presence of unscrupulous exporters .WEAKNESS                    Low quality awareness in customers Poor quality consciousness in manufacturers Absence of a training mechanism for the stone industry and a resultant shortage of skilled and trained workforce Lack of scientific exploitation techniques in quarries Poor polishing and finishing techniques Poor segregation.

OPPORTUNITIES   A large domestic market Increase in construction activity in India         Increasing awareness amongst Architects Unexplored potential for exports growth An expanding world market An increased trend towards exports of finished goods Globalisation and liberalization Strategic location with sea links to all the major continents Export Demand for stone handicrafts Export potential of sandstone and slates .

Turkey. Brazil.THREATS      Opening up of import regulations Competition from ceramic products Import restriction in Europe without proper test certifications Widespread environmental degradation Closure due to unscientific exploitation      Rescession due to over production Competition from China. South Korea. Group promotion strategies of competitor countries Dropping prices of Indian stones in the International market Lack of monopolistic and consortium approach . South Korea etc. South Africa.