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Production Flow Analysis

Group 9 Kumara Swamy Neha Lokhinath Mamta Sahare Mangal Deep - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45

What is Group Technology (GT)?
• GT is a theory of management based on the principle that similar things should be done similarly • GT is the realization that many problems are similar, and that by grouping similar problems, a single solution can be found to a set of problems thus saving time and effort • GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in design and production

Implementing GT
Where to implement GT? • „ Plants using traditional batch production and „ process type layout • „If the parts can be grouped into part families How to implement GT? „ • „ Identify part families • „ Rearrange production machines into machine cells

Types of Layout

In most of today’s factories it is possible to divide all the made components into families and all the machines into groups, in such a way that all the parts in each family can be completely processed in one group only The three main types of layout are: • Line (product) Layout • Functional Layout • Group Layout

design attributes and 2.Identifying Part Families Large manufacturing system can be decomposed into smaller subsystems of part families based on similarities in 1. manufacturing features .

dimensional tolerances) • material type • raw material state (casting. forging.) . etc.Identifying Part Families Design Attributes: • part configuration (round or prismatic) • dimensional envelope (length to diameter ratio) • surface integrity (surface roughness. bar stock.

milling.) • batch sizes • machine tools • cutting tools • work holding devices • processing times .Identifying Part Families Part Manufacturing Features: • operations and operation sequences (turning. etc.

. therefore GT contributes to the integration of CAD and CAM.Identifying Part Families Group technology emphasis on part families based on similarities in design attributes and manufacturing.

Forming Part Families – Classification and Coding: Production Flow Analysis (PFA) • PFA is a method for identifying part families and associated machine groupings based on the required manufacturing processes need for each part. .

Component Group Analysis Production flow analysis involves four stages: Stage 1: Machine classification. A machine type number is assigned to machines capable of performing similar operations. . Machines are classified on the basis of operations that can be performed on them.Machine .

information on the operations to be undertaken and the machines required to perform each of these operations is checked thoroughly. .Component Group Analysis Stage 2: Checking parts list and production route information. For each part.Machine .

This. .Component Group Analysis Stage 3: Factory flow analysis.Machine . in turn. allows the problem to be decomposed into a number of machinecomponent groups. This involves a micro-level examination of flow of components through machines.

there is a need to develop analytical approaches to handle large problems systematically. as the problem size becomes large. An intuitive manual method is suggested to manipulate the matrix to form cells. the manual approach does not work. However. .Machine .Component Group Analysis Stage 4: Machine-component group analysis. Therefore.

We will discuss 2 algorithms for PFF (Part Family Formation) .Identifying Manufacturing Cells Using Production Flow Analysis Production Flow Analysis • A technique for forming part families based on Operation Routing Summaries • Several methods available.

105} m = {Drill1. 100 250 700 100 200 . Vbore2} = {D1. Vbore1. D2.12 .12 Ave. 101 102 103 104 105 Routing D1 -M1 .11 . Mill2. 102. 103.14 5 .V2 .12 .Let’s consider 5 parts (n) and 6 machines (m): n = {101. V1. M2.V1 D1 -M1 M2 .5 7 . V2} Part No.M1 . Mill1.14 7-9 8 . 104.D1 Times (min) 9 . Drill2.10 .V1 D2 -M2. Dem.D2 V1 . M1.

j * 2i for each column (wj) (wj) .King’s Algorithm (Rank Order Clustering) Step#1 Calculate the total column width for each column Generate 2i wj = Machine# 1 2 3 4 5 6  2 mi i "i (i) Part# (j) 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 52 103 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 104 0 1 0 1 0 1 84 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 2 i D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 2 4 8 16 32 64 Sum: mi.

If Wj is in ascending order. go to step #3. rearrange the columns to make Wj fall in an ascending order. 105 101 103 D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 52 104 0 1 0 1 1 0 84 i 14 48 14 48 28 32 wj 102 103 104 .#2. otherwise.

#3.j * 2 j wi 14 48 14 48 28 32 for each row (wi) Generate 2j 2j . "i. wi` wi = 103 D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 4  "j 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 8 2 j mij 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 16 104 0 1 0 1 1 0 32 Sum: mi. calculate the total row weight.

Discussion • • • • • • • Good rectangles mean that you have very distinctive part F families Do Parts no 103. 105 have a distinct code so that a can be made to distinguish them from #102. Cell formation Volume / Floor space Size of problems How about King’s algorithm? Will it always work? Are there problems with it? . 104. 101.

of positive cells in row. calculate the total no.DIRECT CLUSTER ALGORITHM D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 102 0 1 0 0 1 0 103 1 0 1 0 1 0 104 0 1 0 1 0 1 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 wi 3 2 3 1 4 1 Step #1. For I. i wi =  M ij a ll j .

Sort rows in descending order of the wi values 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 wi 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 V1 D1 D2 V1 M 1 D2 M2 M2 V2 D1 No Change No Change .

For i = 1 to n. Observe Elements of Row 1 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 Move Column 105 to the left and push column 104 back .Step #3. move all columns j where mij = 1 to the left maintaining the order of previous rows.

Step #4. move all rows I. wij Observe Elements of Columns 101. 103 & 105: No Change can be made!! Observe Elements of Column 102 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 Move Row D2 upwards and push row D1 down . where mij = 1 to the top maintaining the order of the previous columns. For j = m to 1.

Identify Cells or potential Cells D2 M2 V2 V1 M1 D1 104 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 0 0 0 1 1 1 103 0 0 0 1 1 1 105 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cell #1 Cell #2 Part Family #1 Part Family #2 .

Different type analysis Company Flow Analysis • division of large companies into factory components • aims to simplify the flow of materials between factories • Uses FROM-TO charts and frequency charts and a flow analysis • Presentation of data for company goal .

Factory Flow Analysis An attempt is made at this stage to find major groups of departments. and major families of components which can be completely processed in these departments • • Study and map the existing flow system Identify the dominant material flows between shops (or buildings) Determine the Process Route Number (PRN) for each part Analyze the part by PRN. Combine closely associated processes at departments that complete most of the parts they make If parts are observed to backtrack then such flows are eliminated by minor redeployment of equipment • • • • .

Group Analysis • The flows in each of individual shops are analyzed. • Loads are calculated for each part family to obtain the equipment requirements for each cell . • Operation sequences of the parts that are being produced in a particular shop are analyzed to identify manufacturing cells.

Line Analysis A linear or U-layout is designed for the machines assigned to each cell. The routings for each part assigned to the cell and the frequency of use of each routing are used to develop a cell for: – Efficient transport. & – Minimum material handling .

. • This increases available machine capacity on bottleneck work canters in the cell. • It seeks to sequence parts on each machine to sequence all the machines in the cell to reduce setup times and batch sizes. tooling and setups.Tooling Analysis • A Tooling Analysis helps to schedule the cell by identifying families of parts with similar operation sequences.

Case on Manufacturing Cell Formation Using Production Flow Analysis .

Overview • The cell redesign in this work is tightly focused to reach optimization of material flows under real manufacturing conditions • Aim to built one-piece flow production • Case study was concentrated on relatively typical situation of transformation from batch production to cellular manufacturing .

retailers are returning what they cannot sell and returned products ends up as a dead inventory • By contrast this system outputs products based on the needs of the assembly processes. which are the closest processes to the market and therefore customer .Introduction • The following research deals with theoretical background for application of one-piece concept by applying the principles of Product/Quantity (P-Q) analysis and production flow analysis (PFA) • The factory push their outputs to retailers.

While these are examples of flow production.Research Background • The sense of material flow optimisation is to help planners to satisfy customer’s needs in shortened manufacturing time cycles • Material flows can be implemented as: 1. the term also applies to the manufacture of either complex single parts or assembled products . This category involves the manufacture of medium-sized lots of the same item or product. which are typical mainly for a batch production. Continuous material flows are ordinarily applied in chemical and food industry. The lots may be produced only once. Discrete flows. or they may be produced at regular intervals 2.

Research Background • The role of the cell formation is transformation of discrete material flows to almost continuous material flows with the aim to change planning .centred production on one-piece production • Reduction in inventory is realized due to: 1) Parts are not being stored in containers (unit loads) at operations while they are being processed. Batches or lots of parts are not staged between operations waiting to be scheduled and then to be processed . Instead one piece at a time is processed in cells and ideally only one piece is in transit between operations 2) Parts are made as they are ordered.

Research Background The basic conditions for establishing one-piece flow systems are: • Make the factory layout conductive to the overall production flow • The factory must include clear pathways • The production line should clearly distinguish between material input and product output • The production line should consist mainly of single operator Ushaped cells • Include thorough inspection in the layout • Minimize in-process inventory .

POBLEM AND METHOD DESCRIPTION • The company produces bicycle components. minimum ergonomic requirements for equipment. facilities. which differ in shapes and sizes • Lots are produced more or less at regular intervals • The manufacturing equipment was conventionally designed for higher rates of production • The machine tools are combined with specially designed jigs and fixtures. which increase the output rate • Flexibility of production is ensured by semi-automatic machines • An effective design should take into account an organization’s products. and procedures for planning and controlling operations. and short and long-term goals .

Production equipment layout and material flow before cell formation .

Share (%) 24 40 56 71 77 82 87 91 94 96 98 100 INITIAL PRODUCTION DATA . Qty (pcs/yr) 405870 676450 943416 1199727 1301427 1390417 1466693 1536097 1589801 1628977 1663679 1693061 Cumul.Semi product No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Quantity (pcs/yr) 405870 270580 266966 256311 101700 88990 76276 69404 53704 39176 34702 29382 Cumul.

product type.Actual P-Q diagram (P. Q-quantity) .

decision about production equipment layout depends more or less on intuition and experience of a manager.X1. it is reasonable to organize production equipment in technological pattern due to relations between assortment and amount of manufactured pieces being not suitable for implementing one-piece flow principles .amount of manufactured products related to 20% of produced assortment X2.amount of manufactured products related to 30% of produced assortment X3. even though fuzzy criteria for such decision making c) if X3 approaches 60%.amount of manufactured products related to 40% of produced assortment a) if X1 approaches 80%. then building a wide-variety small lot production line is reasonable i. apply one-piece flow conception b) if X2 lays around 70% value.e.

Interval of the interest .

then it is more or less appropriate to built up wide-variety small-lot production system R3: If value X2 is smaller then 70% but X2 is greater then X3 then conditions for implementing one-piece flow are not satisfied so the production equipment layout should be organized in technological pattern . then it is strongly recommended to establish wide-variety small-lot production layout in factory thus implementing one-piece flow conception R2: If value X2 is smaller than 70% and X2 is greater than 65 % or X3 is greater then X2.R1: If value X2 is greater than or equal 70%.

Decision-making algorithm .

Multi-product process chart .

the cells are often organized into a U-shaped layout. design of manufacturing cells.• Based on multi-product process chart further steps of Production flow analysis can be applied. which is considered appropriate when there is a variation in the workflow among the parts made in the cell. Each stage in PFA seeks to eliminate delays in production flows and operational wastes in a progressively smaller area of the factory • PFA can be defined as comprehensive method for material flow analysis. part family formation. and facility layout design • In real conditions.It also allows the multifunctional workers in the cell to move easily in between machines .

A new 6-line production equipment layout Product layout disposition after transformation .

transforming of current production equipment layout to 6 lines led to improvement of more important economical aspects in a company .CONCLUSION • Transformation of production process can be viewed as perspective way of optimization of material flows by changing production equipment layout and achieving the goals of company • Material flow optimization belongs among complex engineering and managerial problems • Conducting this study from one side helped to verify the effectiveness of decision-making based on criteria of P-Q analysis • On the other hand.

M. Automation. Cooper. Groover. “Supply Chain Management: Implementation Issues and Research Opportunities” • M.C. and computer integrated manufacturing • International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering 3:4 2009: Case on manufacturing cell formation using PFA by Vladimir Modrak .REFERENCES • D.M. D. Pagh. production systems. Lambert. P. and J.