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MODULE – 01: VOCABULARY

Geetanjali Bhandari

Key Concepts:  Use of Dictionary Use of Words:  Diminutives   Homonyms & Homophones .

Use of Dictionary  Meaning Synonyms Antonyms Usage Etymology     .

Use of Dictionary  Pronunciation Increase word power Effective communication skills    Speaking Skills Reading Skills   Writing Skill  High level of confidence .

Diminutives A Word Form that Indicates Smallness .

affection or triviality  Droplet from drop . familiarity. tiny. little A diminutive for a model train layout  It is pertaining to or productive of a form denoting smallness.Diminutives: Meaning  It literally means small.

a young goose A droplet. a young duck A hillock a small hill A novelette. a small circle A duckling. a tiny drop  . a short novel A wavelet.Diminutive: Examples  A booklet. is a small book  A circlet. a ripple or small wave      A gosling.

 Diminutives are titles of endearment  Goldsmith becomes Goldy . doggie or birdie one can say girlie but not *mannie. auntie but not *unclie. horsie but not *goatie.Diminutive: Further Explanation  "English usually forms diminutives by suffixing -y or ie  Hanky for handkerchief. and so on. doggie for dog and Tommie for Thomas  We also use -ette  As in kitchenette for a small kitchen  Productive diminutive derivation hardly exist at all  Despite the existence of isolated baby forms such as handies.

Bat. Bow etc.  Homophones   Word that are pronounced the same but differ in meaning.Homonyms & Homophones  Homonyms  One or two words that have same sound and often same spelling but different meanings  Homographs   Words that are spelled the same but differ in meanings Example – Stalk. . derivation or spelling Example – hair & hare. Stick. night & knight etc.

Importance of Diminutives & Homonyms  Usage Formal vs. Informal Expression Effective communication skills Engaging the audience     .

Clichés  A cliché is a phrase or opinion that is overused and betray a lack of original thought The original was striking but due to its overuse it lost its charm In modern culture it is used for an idea that is expected or predictable A cliché may or may not be true Clichés come from all over the world. Even if the origin is unclear. a cliché starts with a smart remark that ends up becoming very well known. They can be interpreted differently. Often. depending on your cultural knowledge and identity. it‟s clear to see that clichés are a popular form of expression     .

Love & Emotions    Opposites attract Scared out of my wits Frightened to death       All is fair in love and war Every cloud has a silver lining Haste makes waste The writing on the wall Time heals all wounds What goes around comes around .Clichés: Examples  Clichés of Time            Time will tell In the nick of time Lost track of time Lasted an eternity A matter of time A waste of time Rushed for time In a jiffy The time of my life At the speed of light Clichés of Life.

Brave as a lion: This describes a very brave person. Weak as a kitten: This describes a very weak person      .Clichés of People  As old as the hills: This describes someone very old Fit as a fiddle: This describes someone in great shape Without a care in the world: This describes someone who is not plagued by problems or worries A diamond in the rough: This describes someone who has a great future.

Euphemism:  A mild or indirect word or expression for one too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing. Intended to ameliorate the situation   Examples:       Passed away instead of died Correctional facility instead of jail Departed instead of died Differently-abled instead of handicapped or disabled Fell off the back of a truck instead of stolen Ethnic cleansing instead of genocide .

often meaningless to outsiders. .Jargons: Meaning The specialized language of a professional. occupational. or other group.

Hoped-for turnover will be projected in a 'business plan.  .' a document used for raising finance and scrupulously ignored thenceforth.Business Jargons:  Business Jargon "Jargon is an invaluable tool in massaging meaning for marketing purposes.' optimistically implying that sales are inevitable.  Promoters may describe a start-up with no customers as 'prerevenue.

 Hence the phrase 'I'm outside the loop on that' excuses knuckledragging cluelessness. 'I'm afraid I don't have the bandwidth' is a polite way of saying: 'You aren't important enough for me to help you. . .' allows the speaker to assert vague suspicions as solid facts. .„   'It is my understanding that . . . .Business Jargons:  Terminology that deflects criticism while bestowing spurious professionalism is essential to the manager.

.  “Due diligence”  Doing research before purchasing or investing in a business  “Sweat equity”  Receiving equity or ownership in the business instead of a salary.Examples of Business Jargons:  “Bang for the buck”  Getting a lot for your money.

!!!Thank You!!! .