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Ophthalmology

Dr. Jihan abdallah

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Anatomy of the eye and surrounding structures.
• Anatomy of the eyeball. • Ocular adnexae. • Bony orbits.

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Anatomy of the eye and surrounding structures.
• 1- Anatomy of the eyeball.

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4 .Anatomy of the eyeball • The eyeball is nearly spherical in shape with a diameter of about 24 mm. • The posterior 5/6 is whitish and called the sclera. • The outer most layer is divided into anterior 1/6 called the cornea. • It is transparent to allow the light rays into the eye.

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• It can change in size to control the amount of light entering the eye. • It is composed of 3 parts => iris. ciliary body and choroid. • The iris is a circular disc with an aperture at the center => pupil.• The intermediate layer is highly vascular and pigmented ---> Uveal tract. 10 .

11 .The ciliary body has 2 functions: 1. => Accommodation and occurs by contraction of the ciliary ms.Secretion of aqueous humour by ciliary processess.Modifying the power of the lens according to the distance of vision. 2.

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13 . • It is a very thin layer which contains the receptors for vision=> rods& cones. • The retina is the innermost layer of the eyeball.• The choroid lines the sclera and covers the retina.

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• Rods lying at periphery & responsible for vision in dim light. • cones lying at center & responsible for vision in bright light. 15 . • The nerve fibers of the retina collect to form the optic nerve & carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain. • The most important part for vision is =>macula.

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• The lens lies behind the iris & is kept in place by the suspensory ligament which connects the edge of lens to ciliary processes. • The lens is biconvex in shape & transparent to collect the light rays onto the retina. • The lens divides the cavity of the eye ball into small anterior one & big posterior one. • Anterior=>A H. • Posterior=> vitreous.

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2.Ocular adnexae • • • • Two eye lids Conjunctiva Lacrimal system Extra ocular muscles 22 .

• The two eye lids are closed by orbicularis oculi muscle supplied by the facial nerve and are opened by the levator supplied by oculomotor nerve. 23 .• The two eye lids are mobile mucocutaneous folds which protect the eye from different sources of injury.

24 . and lining the inner surfaces of the eyelids.• Conjunctiva : Transparent mucous membrane covering the outer surface of the eyeball except the cornea.

Lacrimal system • The lacrimal gland secretes the tears which washes the surface of the eye & keeps it moist & clear. • The tears are drained through the lacrimal drainage system into the nasal cavity. 25 .

Anatomy of the lacimal drainage system 26 .

• • • • • • • EOM is =>6. They move the eye ball in all directions of gaze. 2 obliques. L R=> Abducent n. Supplied by 3rd cranial nerve Except SO =>Trochlear n. 27 . 4 recti.

• They move the eye ball in all directions of gaze. • L R=> Abducent n.Extraocular muscles :Six muscles that move the eyeball • 4 recti. • 2 obliques. • Supplied by 3rd cranial nerve • Except SO =>Trochlear n. 28 .

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RECTUS__CN3 30 .1_levator__CN3 2_S.

• Each orbit has 4 walls: • Roof => related to anterior cranial fossa • Medial wall => related to nose.3-The orbital cavities: • They are pyramidal in shape with the base looking forwards & the apex backward. • The apex of the orbit is connected to the middle cranial fossa where the vessels and nerves of the eye ball arise. ethmoidal air sinuses & sphenoid sinus. • Floor=> related to maxillary sinus and the upper jaw. 31 . • Lateral wall=> related to temporal fossa.

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Recurrent styes of the eye lids: Stye is an acute suppurative inflammation of hair follicles and glands related to it. 1. It is localized inflammation to root of one lashes with yellow pus. 35 . head pointing at lid margin Ttt: -antibiotic ED& Oint.Eye lid problems with relation to dentistry. -Surgical drainage.

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antibiotic ED& Oint.good hygeine. 37 .Blepharitis: • Chronic inflammation of skin of lid margin. • . • Ttt:. • Infective=> bad hygiene.

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O & cover. • Deviation of the angle of the mouth to the healthy side.E D. • Physiotherapy. • Loss of vision. • Ttt:. 39 . • Dryness corneal ulcer & opacities. • Inability to close the eye .Bell's palsy • Lower motor facial palsy .

• Abnormal association bet 3rd &5th ns . • Supplying ms for lid elevation & mastication. 40 .Jaw winking reflex • The eye lid is ptosed & elevates with jaw movement.

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Problems of the conjunctiva • Conjunctivitis : Inflammation of the conjunctiva. redness. 43 . and swelling. grittiness. Characterized by discharge.

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46 .Anatomy of the conjunctiva.

Mucopurulent discharge in bacterial conjunctiva. 47 .

Conjunctival papillae involving the upper (tarsal conjunctiva.( =(lid)_________cause : allergy 48 .

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50 . Traumatic. Inflammmatory.The cornea • • • • Diseses of the cornea: Cogenital.

• Cornea :Transparent. 51 . pupil. and anterior chamber and provides most of an eye's optical power. dome-shaped front part of the eye that covers the iris.

Munson sign in keratoconus 52 .

Nipple cone in keratoconus 53 .

• If this is not done. 54 . many lesions. including large corneal ulcers. may be missed.• The cornea should be stained with fluorescein eye drops.

Small dendritic ulcer stained with fluoresein 55 .

Larg dendritic ulcer stained with fluoresein 56 .

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