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Earthquake Seismology

GEO 335

BU: Bahria University Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences

Seismology
Seismology is the study of generation, propagation and recording of elastic waves or seismic waves in the Earth (and other celestial bodies) and of the source, which produces them. The sources can be natural earthquakes or man-made sources of deformational energy that generate the seismic waves.

What are Earthquakes?


The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energy Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks Continuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks

CLASSIFICATION OF EARTHQUAKES

FREQUENCY-MAGNITUDE RELATION

What is the Elastic Rebound Theory?


Explains how energy is stored in rocks Rocks bend until the strength of the rock is exceeded Rupture occurs and the rocks quickly rebound to an undeformed shape Energy is released in waves that radiate outward from the fault

The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake

The point within Earth where faulting begins is the focus, or hypocenter The point directly above the focus on the surface is the epicenter

TYPES OR CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKES


Tectonic Earthquakes
Subduction Zone Earthquakes Collision Zone Earthquakes Divergent and Transcurrent Plate Boundary Earthquakes Intraplate Earthquakes

Volcanic Earthquakes Induced Earthquakes

Normal- DIVERGENT Plate Boundry

Reverse/Thrust- CONVERGENT P.B.

Strike-Slip- TRANSFORM P.B.

TECTONIC PLATES

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Seismographs record earthquake events

The Economics and Societal Impacts of EQs


Damage in Oakland, CA, 1989 Building collapse Fire Tsunami Ground failure

TELESEISMIC, REGIONAL AND LOCAL EARTHQUAKES


The earthquakes, which are recorded by a seismograph station at a greater distance, are called teleseismic earthquakes. These are very often called teleseisms. The earthquakes, which occur beyond say 500 km but within 1000 km of a seismograph station, are called regional earthquakes. Earthquakes occurring within a distance of few hundred km, say 500 km, from a seismic station are called local earthquakes.

FORESHOCKS, AFTERSHOCKS AND EARTHQUAKE SWARMS


A larger shock is likely to be preceded by a few smaller shocks; these are called foreshocks. There are, almost certain, to be many shocks after a main shock, which are called aftershocks. On the other hand, a long series of small shocks with no main event is frequently recorded in certain localities; these sequences are called earthquake swarms.

EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE, INTENSITY AND ENERGY


Magnitude is one of the basic and important parameters of an earthquake. It defines the size of an earthquake. Intensity of an earthquake is a measure of its effect, i.e. degree of damage; for example broken windows, collapsed houses etc. produced by an earthquake at a particular place.

Earthquake Seismology and the Interior of the Eartth


The 3 major layers in the Earth, from outside in, are the crust, mantle, and core. The crust is very thin, averaging about 30 km thick in the continents and 5 km thick in the oceans The mantle is 2900 km thick, almost halfway to the centre of the Earth. It is made of dark, dense, ultramafic rock material (peridotite). Core is divided into two parts, outer and the inner core. The outer core is 2300 km thick and is made of a mixture liquid iron (90%) and nickel (10%) The inner core is at the centre of the Earth and has a 1200 km radius; it's made of solid iron (90%) and nickel (10%)