Introduction to Click to edit Master subtitle style International Development Pre-departure Course

26th June 2011
Sacha Grodzinski Chair, Engineers Without Borders UK

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Overview:
1.

Intro to development: – What is development? – Who is involved? – History of Development – Development Theories and Current Thinkers

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2. Complexity of Development: – Key factors within Development 3/26/13

What is Development?
There is no universal definition, but most include: • Economic Growth • Social Change • Quality of Life • Livelihoods • Personal Capabilities

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What is Development?
• • •

Developed/Developing is too simplistic Development is a process not a goal Depends on the local - Social - Political - Natural Development needs. - Financial - Environmental
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International Development vs.Relief Non- Emergency aid Longer-term approach Sustainable solutions Oxfam’s One Programme Approach

• •

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Who is involved?

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Who is involved?

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H. Cruickshank – Development Engineering, Lecture 1 – ESD

Who is involved?
What is the role of the State? • Good Governance
– –

Law and order Stop Corruption Education Health care Security

Provision of welfare:
– – –

Macroeconomic management
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Who is involved?
Are NGOs always GOOD? • Can take the role of the state • Accountable to whom? • Compete for funds and beneficiaries • Influence wage structure • Can generate sympathy over empathy • Work the poorest or those easiest to reach (geographically and to meet 3/26/13 indicators)

Who is involved?
What is YOUR role as the foreign engineer?
•Amplify the voice of the beneficiaries at every stage •Ensure Health and Safety •Create opportunity for locals, not remove them •Ensure sustainability of projects •Monitor and evaluate real impact and feedback
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History of Development

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1960’s and 70’s
For many people engineering’s role in development is characterised by the large infrastructure projects of the 1960s and 1970s. Projects were often donor led and complex. This resulted in the use of foreign expertise to design, implement and maintain the projects.

• •

Projects were based on the idea that infrastructure resulted in economic development Did not usually provide for the local community Caused environmental and cultural damage, resulting in displacement and no compensation Often a lack of maintenance which resulted in the projects failing and trapping the country in debt

This approach saw many successes but also many failures – not technologically, but in terms of development. Kariba Dam, Zimbabwe 3/26/13 Without Borders Engineers

1970’s and 80’s
The following development decade was characterised by a focus on smaller technologies – the appropriate Technology focus of the 1970s and 1980s. This was as much a reaction to large infrastructure projects as it was an attempt at making technology projects more successful in development terms aimed at meeting the communities needs and involving the communities skills. These projects minimised the effect on culture and environment. However, a lack of ownership and maintenance support led to failures. Examples: • Water pumps so close to the village that the women could no long gossip while walking to collect water. • Charge controllers that were to expensive to replace in the Philippines 3/26/13 Without Borders Engineers

Nomadic Turbine, Mongolian Steppe

1990’s

This approach also had its critics and the 1990s saw increasing focus being placed on social dimensions, leading to the more recent focus on the rights agenda and governance approaches, exemplified in the Millennium.

UN Conference, New York
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Concepts of development
Modernisation Theory • Social Evolutions: Simple  Complex Society • Large infrastructure leads to development • Loss of culture and identity for efficiency

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Concepts of development
Dependency Theory Periphery  Core ‘Poor’ ‘Rich’ • Resources: Natural; Cheap Labour; Destination for Old Technology • Maintained: Economics; Politics; Banking and Finance; Education; and Culture • Resist Change: Trade and other 3/26/13 Sanctions

Concepts of development
World Systems Theory • Lot only global, but local ‘Core’ and ‘Periphery’ • Ask a number of questions:

– –

– –

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WS Impact : nations, ethnic groups, social classes? WS effect components? Do the Periphery need to be underdeveloped? What causes change in the WS?

Current Thinkers
Jeffery Sachs – End of Poverty • Neoliberal top down approach; • Focus on: More Aid; Debt Forgiveness; Better Trade Terms; and Access to Modern Technology. • Ending Corruption of Powerful over Weak ≠ Ending Extreme Poverty
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Current Thinkers
William Easterly – The White Mans Burden 2 Tragedies:
1.

So many people suffer so much for lack of inexpensive remedies

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Current Thinkers
William Easterly – The White Mans Burden Tragedies: 2. The West spent $2.3 trillion on foreign aid
over the last 50 yrs and still had not managed to get 12-cent medicines to children to prevent half of all malaria deaths. The West spent $2.3 trillion on 3/26/13 and still had

Current Thinkers
William Easterly – The White Mans Burden The West is not stingy, just ineffective.
Planners Searchers Top Down Know answer Bottom Up Do not know answer, but will search to find it Trail and Error

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Current Thinkers
Muhammad Yunas – Banker to the Poor • Everyone is an Entrepreneur; • People want to succeed; • Credit is a fundamental HR; • Empower Women; • ‘Self Managed’ groups as part of
a wider Federation

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Current Thinkers
Amartya Sen – Development as Freedom • Democracy as necessary for growth; • Expression of Capabilities; • Ability to Choose How to Live.

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2. Complexity of Development

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Key factors within Development?
Inequality – ‘Pro-poor’ • Dignity – Universal Declaration of Human Rights ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights’ • Partnership – Removing dependency culture; MDG 8; 2 way learning. • Participation – Community Led Total 3/26/13 Sanitation

Key factors within Development?

• • •

Appropriateness – materials/ scale/ technical level/ culturally and socially beneficial. Sustainability – Balance of: Social, Environment and Economic Drivers. Capacity Building. Finance and Micro-finance Migration and Remittance
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What is the role of Technology?
Not all New Technology is GOOD: Diverts funds from proven technology Have they been tested in their context Do they meet the needs or wants of the community Solutions should empower not disempower

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How is it measured?

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How is it measured?
Gross Domestic Income (GDI) or Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Defined as the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time Calculated as consumption + government spending + gross investment + (imports exports)

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How is it measured?
Other indicators: • Health (Infant mortality rates, HIV infection rate,
life Expectancy…etc)

Education (Primary education, literacy rate…
etc)

Employment • Ease of ‘Doing Business’ • Corruption Index • Budget Transparency • Poverty: Energy/Fuel, Food…etc 3/26/13

How is it measured?
Human Development Index (HDI): - Life expectancy - Literacy

- Educational

- GDP per capita

Educational attainment

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How is it measured?
• •

Does everyone developing equally? Gini Coefficient:

G=A/(A+B)
A value of 0 represents absolute equality, and a value of 100 absolute inequality.

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How is it measured?
Millennium Development Goals: • Signed Sept 2000 • 0.7% of GNI • End 2015, with reviews in 2005/2010

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How is it measured?
Issues with targets: • Divert effort and money from other activities; • Only valid if you are measuring the right thing; • Who is accountable if targets are not met?

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How is it measured?
http://www.gapminder.org

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Thinking about Impact!

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Thinking about Impact!
What is the difference between:
Digging a well Access to clean water and improved health?

Disseminating improved Improved livelihoods cook stoves and health? Building a school Ensuring that children get an education?

It is changing of mind-set from what we want to do, 3/26/13 to what we want to achieve

3. Advice

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Advice: Before ‘You Go’

Communication:

Learn a language | • Learn to teach

• •

Technical: Know the basics and be able to do it Read more about development Think of the organisations you want to work with

http://www.oxfam.org/en/content/from-poverty-power-full-text 3/26/13

Advice: In the ‘field’
Be safe and stay healthy mental + physically! • Know your role and responsibilities • Expect the unexpected • Write a diary or a blog – Reflect! • Remember your motivations (Int’l Dev. is Int’l) • Ambassador for home country and organisation, especially when socialising. 3/26/13

Advice: On your return
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Prepare: Reverse culture shock! Think: How will you continue on your return?

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Re-cap:
1.

Intro to development: – What is development? – Who is involved? – History of Development – Development Theories and Current Thinkers

BREAK
2. Complexity of Development: – Key factors within Development 3/26/13

Thank you for Click to edit Master subtitle style listening

¿ Questions ?

3/26/13

Sacha Grodzinski Chair, Engineers Without Borders UK Sacha.grodzinski@ewb-uk.org

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