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Mining methods for steeply dipping and massive deposits

Mining methods for steeply dipping and massive deposits


Sublevel caving

With caving of overburden

Induced Block Caving Block caving Top slicing

Self supported methods

Sublevel stoping Large open stope mining

Without caving of overburden Supported methods

Continues bench backfilling stoping Cut-and-fill stoping Undercut and fill stoping Shrinkage stoping

Square-set stoping

CAVING METHODES

Sublevel caving

Sublevel caving

Sublevel caving

Induced block caving

Induced block caving with blasting on the broken rock

1 - drilling drifts ; 2 - level drift ; 3 - haulage drift ; 4 draw points ; 5 - control crosscut.

Blocs foudroys avec tir avec chambres de dgagement

1 - galeries de foration ; 2 - points de soutirage; 3 -galerie de transport Volume relatif des chambres de dgagement - 30%

Bloc caving - non mechanized mining

Bloc caving - mechanized mining

Characteristics of caving methods


Advantages : high stope output and personnel productivity low costs good security conditions Disadvantages : method is not selective high dilution and losses method is inflexible caving of surface Application : massive steeply dipping deposits low ore value

Top slicing

Advantage : low loss and dilution

Application : steeply dipping deposits ore width > to 3-4 m weak ore and walls high ore value

Disadvantages : stope production and personnel productivity are low costs are high

SELF SUPPORTED METHODS

Sublevel stoping

Sublevel stoping

Sublevel stoping

Sublevel stoping in thick orebody


B A-a A B-b

C-c B A

Large open stope mining

Large open stope mining

Large open stope mining

Large open stope mining with primary and secondary stopes

Large open stope mining with caving of pillars

Large open stope mining with lost pillars

Characteristics of self supported methods


Advantages : high stope output and personnel productivity low dilution low costs good security conditions Disadvantages : method is not selective high losses in pillars or higher costs for backfilling method is inflexible Application :

massive steeply dipping deposits competent ore and host rocks low ore value with lost pillars high ore value with cemented fill

SUPPORTED METHODS

Continuous bench backfilling stoping

Cut-and-fill stoping

1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - rise for fill and ventilation ; 4 - ore passe ; 5 - manway rise ; 6 crosscut ; 7, 8 - pillars ; 9 - ore ; 10 - broken ore ; 11 - backfill .

Cut-and-fill stoping

Cut-and-fill stoping

Cut-and-fill stoping

Cut-and-fill stoping

drilling

loading

filling

competent rock

medium rock

weak rock

Cut-and-fill stoping
jumbo

ore

backfill

LHD

Cut-and-fill stoping

Drilled stope face

LHD in the stope

Cut-and-fill stoping

Cut-and-fill stoping

Dilution calculation

For > 15 - 20 :

W
a L h

opening

= L sin a + h cos a + 2a

For < 15 - 20 :

W
a

opening

= L sin a + h cos a + a

Characteristics of cut-and-fill stoping


Advantages :
method is selective low dilution and losses flexibility

Disadvantages : low stope output and personnel productivity high costs Application :

competent ore weak host rocks high ore value deposit can be irregular

Undercut-and-fill stoping

1 - rise for fill ; 2 - orepasse ; 3 - crosscut ; 4 - ventilation opening ; 5 - limit of mining ; 6 - stop limit haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - rise for fill and ventilation ; 4 - ore passe ; 5 - manway rise ; 6 - crosscut ; I blasting ; II - loading ; III - backfilling.

Undercut-and-fill stoping

1 - top level ; 2 - haulage level ; 3 - ramp ; 4 - stop access ; 5 - ore and fill pass ; 6 - limit of mining.

Undercut-and-fill stoping

1 - ore mat ; 2 - reinforcement wire mesh ; 3 - anchoring ; 4 - cable ; 5 - polystyrene sheathing ; 6 - ore ; 7 walls ; 8 - backfill of the previous cut.

Undercut-and-fill stoping

crosscut for backfilling access to the cut, 20%

ramp, 20%

R - fill pass ; J - ore pass.

Undercut-and-fill stoping

Undercut-and-fill stoping

Undercut-and-fill stoping

Undercut-and-fill stoping

Undercut-and-fill stoping

Characteristics of cut-and-fill stoping


Advantages :
method is selective low dilution and losses flexibility

Disadvantages : low stope output and personnel productivity very high costs

Application : weak ore and host rocks very high ore value

Shrinkage stoping

1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - manway and ventilation rise ; 4 - doghole ; 5 - pillar ; 6 - crosscut ; 7 ore ; 8 - drillholes ; 9 - brocken ore .

Shrinkage stoping

Shrinkage stoping
A-A B A B-B

broken ore

A
B

1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport and ventilation drift ; 3 - doghole ; 4 - stop sill.

Shrinkage stoping
prepared stop

Alimac rise

level 144 cap pillar of 5 m

fan

openings

mined out stop stop at the end of mining

tubing for ventilation

pillars

haulage level 200

thin pillar fan

stop in operation

Shrinkage stoping

prepared stop

level 130 cap pillar

mined out stop

ore width height

pillars 2.5 x 2 m

haulage level 200

thin pillar

stop in operation

Characteristics of shrinkage stoping

Advantages : selective blasting low costs Disadvantages : mucking is not selective low stope output low personnel productivity loss in pillars difficulty in mechanization Application :

stable ore and host rocks steeply dipping deposit regular boundaries of ore body ore thickness up to 5 m broken ore must not re-cement with time

Square-set stoping

Application : deposit of 30 to 60 dip and of 1 to 3 m thickness weak ore and walls high value of ore Advantages : selectivity low loss and dilution

Disadvantages : stope production and personnel productivity are low because of important wood consumption costs are high

Application of different mining methods in steeply dipping narrow vein deposits


Stables

Cut-and-fill

Shrinkage Sublevel stoping

Ore stability

Continuous bench backfilling

Instables

Undercut-and-full filling

Undercut-and-partiaml filling

Instable

Stable

Walls Stability

Application of different mining methods in massive vein deposits


High ore value

Ore value

Undercut-and-fill Cut-and-fill Large open stoping with cemented fill

Zone de foudroyage Foration

Sublevel caving

Low ore value

soutirage

grizzly

roulage

Block caving

Large open stoping with lost pillars

Low ore stability

High ore stability

Ore stability