You are on page 1of 16

Decision Maths

Solving Linear Programming problems

Solving the problem.


There are a number of ways in which to solve the

linear programming problem that we looked at in the last lesson. 1 You can draw the equations graphically and then i Solve by evaluating the vertices. ii Solve using the ruler method. 2 You can apply the Simplex Algorithm (this is not in the D1 syllabus and we will not be studying this) Taking last weeks example, we are going to look at representing the algebra graphically and then we will consider both methods to solve this problem.

Final - Problem
Lets consider the example we looked at in lesson 7.

Maximise the profit function.

P = 60x + 84y Subject to the constraints 2x + 3y 30 5x + 5y 60 x 0, y 0

The Graph (drawing the lines)


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0
i.e And

Craftsman Machine

10

15

20

To draw 5x + 5y = 60 and 2x + 3y = 30 find the intersections with both axes. x=0 y=12 and y=0 x=12 the line joins (0,12) and (12,0). x=0 y=10 and y=0 x=15 the line joins (0,10) and (15,0)

The Graph (shading inequalities)


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20
As we know that x and y are both 0, we can shade in the

Craftsman Machine

region of co-ordinates that we do not require.

The Graph (shading inequalities)


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20
We can now do a similar thing with the constraint inequalities. If 2x + 3y 30, then choose any point and plug in to the inequality. Using the point (2,2), 2 x 2 + 3 x 2 = 10, which is less than 30. From

Craftsman Machine

this we know to shade in the region above the line.

The Feasible Region


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 Craftsman Machine

We can do a similar thing with 5x + 5y 60, and

again we shade in the region above the line.

Questions
1 Indicate on a diagram the region for which 5x + 3y 15 x 0, y 0 2 - Indicate on a diagram the region for which 4x + 3y 12 2x + 5y 10 x 0, y 0 3 - Indicate on a diagram the region for which 2x + y 8 y 7, x 3 x 0, y 0

Questions
4 Indicate on a diagram the region for which y + 2x 12 x 2, y 4 5 - Indicate on a diagram the region for which 3x + 2y 12 3x + y 6 x+y4 6 - Indicate on a diagram the region for which 3x + 2y 6 y 2x y0

The Feasible Region


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20
The feasible region is all of the co-ordinates that lie in the un-

Craftsman Machine

shaded area. Remember that each co-ordinate (x,y) represents the number of each shed made.

The Feasible Region


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20
The vertices of the feasible region are: (0,0), (12,0), (6,6) and (0,10). The co-ordinate (6,6) can be found by solving the simultaneous

Craftsman Machine

equations 2x + 3y = 30 and 5x + 5y = 60.

Simultaneous Equations
(6,6) is found by solving 2x+3y=30 and 5x+5y=60

simultaneously.
2x + 3y = 30 5x + 5y = 60

2x + 3y = 30 3x + 3y = 36
x=6

2 x 6 + 3y = 30 12 + 3y = 30 3y = 18 y=6

Maximising the Profit Function Method i


The maximum profit will come from the values of x and y at one

of the vertices. We can now find the value of the profit function at each of these points:

x 0 12 6 0

y 0 0 6 10

P =60x+84y 0 720 864 840

the maximum profit of 864 can be obtained by making 6

sheds of each type each day.

Maximising the Profit Function Method ii


The ruler Method

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20
You draw the object function 60x + 84y = P. (here pick P to be

Craftsman Machine

any value to help you, it makes no difference)

Maximising the Profit Function Method ii


The ruler Method

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20
Once you have drawn the line move it to the last point available

Craftsman Machine

in the region keeping the line parallel.

Maximising the Profit Function Method ii


The co-ordinate that it lands on will give you

the values of x and y that will optimise the function. Here, as we know already x = 6, y = 6. So P = 60x + 84y = 60 x 6 + 84 x 6 = 864