Observable (Quantifiable) Eye Movements

Covert Information Processing

RAHUL.K T 7233

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Introduction Electrooculography Eye movement types Electrooculogram Architecture for eye based activity recognition Electrode placement Apparatus Performance Application Conclusion

 HUMAN activity recognition has become an important application area for pattern recognition.  The movement patterns of eyes have the potential to reveal the activities themselves Eye movements provide useful information for activity recognition.    . Elecrooculography is used for tracking eye movements. Reduces the complexity and cost.

wheel chairs etc. Activity recognition mainly focussed on gait. posture and gesture. Activity recognition provides information that allows a system to best assist the user’s task. most advanced form. fixations and blinks. Instead of sensors here use electrooculography. EOG interfaces can be used for the control of assistive robots. Mainly used eye movements are saccades.     .

EOGh and EOGv. There are two components. i.  The electrical signal that can be measured from this field is called the Electrooculogram (EOG). The eye can be modelled as a dipole with its positive pole at the cornea and its negative pole at the retina due to which a stable electric field is created. Analysing these changes eye movement can be tracked.e.  Change in dipole orientation occurs when the eyes move based on which the measured EOG amplitude varies.   . based on the horizontal and vertical movement of the eye.

the so-called “precornial tear film. the fovea. Saccades The eyes do not remain still when viewing a visual scene. Blinks The frontal part of the cornea is coated with a thin liquid film. regular opening and closing of the eyelids. is able to perceive with high acuity. The simultaneous movement of both eyes is called a saccade. Fixations Fixations are the stationary states of the eyes during which gaze is held upon a specific location in the visual scene. The main reason for this is that only a small central region of the retina.   . or blinking is required.” To spread this fluid across the corneal surface. Fixations are usually defined as the time between each two saccades.

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interfering background signals or electrode polarization.  EOG signals are typically non-repetitive. Marginally influences the EOG signal during saccades but influences other eye movements. such as the residential power line. Noise Removal  EOG signals corrupted with noise from different sources. This prohibits the application of denoising algorithms that make use of structural and temporal knowledge about the signal . the measurement circuitry.   Sources.Baseline Drift Removal  Baseline drift is a slow signal change superposing the EOG signal but mostly unrelated to eye movements. electrodes etc.

Saccadic Detection  Algorithm used is Continuous Wavelet Transform. Different threshold levels are fixed for different activities.: reading involves a fast sequence of small saccades and a large saccade to jump back the beginning of next line.g. Amplitude and direction varies as the activity varies. .Saccadic Detection(CWT-SD) The saccadic amplitude SA is the difference in EOG signal amplitude before and after saccade.    E.

Uses the fact that gaze points remain stable during fixation and they are cluster together closely in time. So CWT-SD itself can be used for fixation detection.    Can be detected by thresholding on the dispersion of gaze points .Fixation Detection  Humans typically alternate between saccades and fixation.

Blink detection  Algorithm used is continuous wavelet transform-blink detection(CWT-BD) A blink characterised by a sequence of two large peaks in coefficients. Two saccades have a small fixation in between them.    . one positive and other negative. The time between two peaks is smaller than minimum time between successive saccades rapidly performed in opposite direction.

.Eye Movement Encoding  It maps the individual saccade information from both EOG components onto a single representation comprised of 24 characters Can be more efficiently processed and analyzed  Wordbook Analysis  Based on the encoded eye movement sequence. it is used to analyse repetitive eye movement patterns.

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Mobi8 from Twente Medical Systems International(TMSI)  Horizontal signal collected using one electrode on the nose and another directly across from the edge of right eye socket. Vertical signal collected using one electrode above the right eyebrow and another on the lower edge of the right eye socket. Commercial EOG device. Reference electrode is placed in the middle of the forehead   .

  The best results approach the top right corner. while worst results are close to the lower left The correct recognition is achieved when the point lies in the diagonal  . A graph is plotted with precision against recall to measure the performance. By using this technology we get an average precision of 76.5.1 and an average recall of 70.

Can be used to check whether the driver is capable of driving.   . Can be used by physically disabled people who have extremely limited peripheral mobility. One of the future application is disease recognition.

◦ Good recognition results were achieved by using feature based algorithm for analysis. eye movements alone can be used to successfully recognise different activities and can be extended to other activities also other than office activities. There are two main findings ◦ First. .

Loew. V. “Gesture Recognition: A Survey. . C. Oct. Udrea. 37. pp.” IEEE Trans. P. J. vol. 4. June 2003.. “Ambulatory System for Human Motion Analysis Using a Kinematic Sensor: Monitoring of Daily Physical Activity in the Elderly. Lukowicz. and P. 18.” IEEE Trans. 2. Chellappa. P. 6. no. pp. Acharya. A. Robert.S. no. G. no. “Machine Recognition of Human Activities: A Survey. S. 311-324. 2008. Part C: Applications and Rev..J. 28. 50. Starner. and O. Tro¨ ster.” IEEE Trans. “Activity Recognition of Assembly Tasks Using Body-Worn Microphones and Accelerometers. 711. Mitra and T. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. vol. 10. pp. 3. 1473-1488. May 2007.E. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. B. and Cybernetics. 1553-1567. Najafi. Man. and T. Turaga. Ward. no. R. Systems. 11. Nov. F.723.1.” IEEE Trans. pp.A. 3. Aminian. K. vol. Bula. Paraschiv-Ionescu. vol. 2006. Biomedical Eng. Subrahmanian.

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