Power System Stabilizer Models with Emphasis on PSS4B

Mohammad Umar Rehman Research Scholar, EED IIT Delhi 15th March 2013

Outline
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Review Various PSS Models Comparison of PSS2B and PSS4B Alternative types

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and power or their combination 3 . terminal frequency.Review      Power System Stabilizers are an essential component of modern interconnected systems Provides damping of power system oscillations through excitation control leading to enhancement of transient stability and transmission capacity Needs to produce a torque component in phase with rotor speed deviations (Δω) Consists of a lead-lag compensator as the basic functioning block Common input signals are shaft speed.

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5 .

Evolution of PSS Models 6 .

Single input PSS Transducer Washout Account for LF signals and Characteristics shaping Lead Lag compensators 7 .PSS1A.

PSS2B. Dual-input PSS 8 .

PSS2B…contd    When using speed as an input signal. torsional oscillations may occur creating disturbance in measurement The solution lies in using several sensors &/or a torsional filter Therefore. the Integral of accelerating power-based stabilizer or PSS2B was developed to overcome this 9 .

These use the speed or frequency input for the generation of an equivalent mechanical power signal..  10 . These systems usually use the speed directly (i. to make the total signal insensitive to mechanical power change b) Stabilizers that use a combination of speed (or frequency) and electrical power. in the frequency range of system oscillations.e.PSS2B…contd Represents two distinct types of dual-input stabilizer implementations: a) Stabilizers that. act as electrical power input stabilizers. without phase-lead compensation) and add a signal proportional to electrical power to achieve the desired stabilizing signal shaping.

Dual-input PSS PE Transducer Washout Δω Phase compensation 11 .PSS3B.

PSS4B 12 .

PSS4B 13 .

which can be tuned individually to handle different oscillation frequencies 14 . the tuning procedure of the single-band stabilizers have to compromise and will not achieve optimal damping in any of the oscillations The multi-band stabilizer has three separate signal bands.PSS4B…contd     Also known as multi-band stabilizer Motivation: lead/lag compensating filters in the older structures could not give an accurate compensation over a wide range of oscillation frequencies If the network suffers from low and high frequency oscillations.

Next we consider performance evaluation of PSS2B and PSS4B 15 .PSS4B…contd    The low band is typically associated with the power system global mode. Δω L-I feeds the low and intermediate bands. while ΔωH is dedicated to the high-frequency band. and the high with the local modes The PSS4B measures the rotor speed deviation in two different ways. the intermediate with the interarea modes.

SMIB Scenario  Gain margins and phase margins were evaluated for the following benchmark system [5]  The stabilizers have a robust performance satisfy the conventional criteria of a minimum of 6 dB and 30° for gain and phase margins. respectively 16 .

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Multi-machine scenario  Damping performance was evaluated for the well known Kundur Test system [6]  PSS4B outperforms PSS2B by providing better damping under all oscillatory modes 18 .

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Pros & Cons of PSS2B 20 .

Pros & Cons of PSS4B 21 .

Alternative Types of PSS 1. Based on shaft speed signal (Δω)    Earliest PSS (1960s) to be used with hydraulic units Measurement is prone to noise and can lead to inaccuracies Needs several measurement points and a torsional filter thus adding to complexity and cost Based on the equation 2. Combination of shaft speed and power (Δ-P-ω)  22 .

…contd  The integral of mech power is related to shaft speed and elec power as:  The overall TF is: 23 .

…contd Major advantages: 1. Measurement becomes simple with the use of end of shaft speed sensing arrangement and also allows used of standard design for all units irrespective of torsional charactersitics  24 . The ΔPe signal a high degree of attenuation towards torsional oscillations eliminating the need for a torsional filter 2.

vol..References [1] Kamwa. vol. 2011. 1994. no. S. IEEE Recommended Practice for Excitation System Models for Power System Stability Studies. [5] G. Chow. J. Department of Electric Power Engineering. A. N. et. McGraw Hill. 3. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. [2] IEEE. IEEE Std 421. [3] Hammer. 1995. [6] Prabha Kundur. al. “Robust redesign of power system damping controllers. 25 . Taranto. M. Othman. Sep. Contr. 3. Technol. “Research and Implementation on Power System Stabilizer PSS4B Model”. 290–298. no. “ IEEE PSS2B Versus PSS4B: The Limits of Performance of Modern Power System Stabilizers”. pp. China International Conference on Electricity Distribution. “Power System Stability and Control”. 20. H. May 2005.” IEEE Trans. 2. [4] Guanghui. A. Thesis. 2010. “Analysis of IEEE Power System Stabilizer Models”. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.. and H. Hua. Syst.5™-2005. I.

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