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Well Test Analysis, © UTP JAN 2012

Infinite Cylindrical Reservoir With Line-Source Well Assume that (1) a well produces at a constant rate, qB (2) the well has zero radius (3) the reservoir is at Uniform pressure, Pi Before production begins; and (4) the well drains an infinite area (p → pi ; as r→ ∞ Under those conditions, the solution to the diffusivity equation is.

Where P is the pressure at a distance r from the well and t. and the Ei function or exponential integral.

Well Test Analysis, © UTP JAN 2012

The Ei-function solution is an accurate approximation to the more exact solution for time

The times less than ( left hand side), the assumption of zero well size( assuming the well line source or sink) limits the accuracy of the equation. At times greater than ( right hand side), the reservoir's boundaries begin to affect the pressure distribution in the reservoir, so that the reservoir is no longer infinite acting. A further simplification of the solution to the flow equation is possible: for X<0.02, can be approximated with an error less than 0.6% by To evaluate Ei, table is used for 0.02<X≤10.9

for X≤0.02, natural logarithm approximation is used For X>10.9 , Ei function can be considered zero for application in well testing

Well Test Analysis, © UTP JAN 2012

its derivation holds the explicit assumption of uniform permeability throughout the drainage area of the well up to the wellbore. we find that most wells have reduced permeability (damage) near the wellbore resulting from drilling or completion operations. © UTP JAN 2012 . Many other wells are stimulated by acidization or hydraulic. if the damaged or stimulated zone is considered equivalent to an altered zone of uniform permeability (ks) and outer radius (rs). the additional pressure drop across this zone ∆ps can be modeled by steady state radial flow equation. So the equation for calculating (P) fails to model such wells properly. According to the following figure : Well Test Analysis.In practice.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Well Test Analysis.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Well Test Analysis.

This equation simply states that the pressure drop in the altered zone is inversely proportional to ks rather than to k and that a correction to the pressure drop in this region (which assumed the same permeability. k. © UTP JAN 2012 . The total pressure drop at the well-bore can calculated by combining the last two equations. as in the rest of the reservoir) must be made. Well Test Analysis.

If a well is damaged (ks < k) . we use Eq.. and the deeper the stimulation. and k and the deeper into the formation the damage extends. s will be positive. for these wells. © UTP JAN 2012 . Said another way. when ks=k then s=0. There is no upper limit for s. the pressure in the unaltered formation away from the well is not affected by the existence of the altered zone.e. the greater the numerical value of s. An altered zone near a particular well affects only the pressure near that well .i. s will be negative. ks=0 and s→∞. If a well is stimulated (ks >k). Some newly drilled wells will not flow at all before stimulation. the larger the numerical value of s. with skin to calculate pressure at the sand face of a pressures at the sand-face of a Well Test Analysis. and the greater the contrast between ks.

with no skin to calculate pressures beyond the altered zone in the formation surrounding the well. Example: .well with an altered zone.475 RB/STB. rw. Well Test Analysis.OOOpsi. it is producing at a constant rate of 20 STB/D. k = 0.23.5 ft. ct = 1 .Calculation of Pressures Beyond the Wellbore Using the Ei-Function Solution A well and reservoir have the following characteristics: The well is producing only oil. = 0.1 md. © UTP JAN 2012 . 5 x 1 0E-5 psi-1 pi = 3. and s = 0. = 1. h = 150 ft. Data describing the well and formation are μ = 0.00Oft. Φ = 0. re = 3. B. but we use Eq.72 cp.

900.79 x 105 Φμctrw2/k Then: = 2. © UTP JAN 2012 . The reservoir will act as an infinite reservoir until t<948 .35 hrs which is less than (t=3hrs) So Ei solution could be used with satisfactory accuracy if the reservoir is still infinite acting at this time.here is=211. calculate the pressure at radii of 10 and 100 ft after 3 hours of production. Now the pressure at r=1ft is: Well Test Analysis. thus for any time less than 211900 the reservoir is still infinite acting. then. Solution: The Ei function is not an accurate solution to flow equations until t >3.Calculate the reservoir pressure at a radius of 1 ft after 3 hours of production.

as indicated in the table. © UTP JAN 2012 .48) = 3000 Well Test Analysis. we find the value of the Ei function from a table .=3000+(100)Ei(-0. Note. =3000+100 p=3000+100Ei(-78.781x0.007849)=2573psi At a radius of 10 ft. that it is a negative quantity.318)=2968psi In this calculation. At a radius of 100 ft.007849) P=3000+100ln(1. P=3000+100 =3000+100E(-0.7849)=3000+100(-0.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Values of exponential integral -Ei (-x) Well Test Analysis.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Well Test Analysis.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Well Test Analysis.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Well Test Analysis.

The solution is: Well Test Analysis. at the Sand-face to time and to reservoir rock and Fluid Properties. is centered in a cylindrical reservoir of radius re.Pseudo-steady-State Solution Actually. pwf. and (3) before production begins. A realistic and practical solution is obtained if we assume that 1-a well produces at constant rate. pi. The most useful form of the desired solution relates flowing pressure. this solution (the pseudo-steady-state) is simply a limiting form solution of diffusivity equation requires that we specify two Boundary conditions and an initial condition. into the wellbore (q refers to flow rate in STB/D at surface conditions. (2) the well. and B is the formation volume factor in RB/STB). and that there is no flow across this outer boundary. qB. © UTP JAN 2012 . with wellbore radius rw. the reservoir is at uniform pressure.

© UTP JAN 2012 .which describes pressure behavior with time for a well centered in a cylindrical reservoir of radius re. so that the summation involving exponentials and Bessel functions is negligible. after this t>948ɸµcre2/k Or Well Test Analysis. The limiting form of interest is that which is valid for large times.

the rate of pressure decline is inversely proportional to the liquid-filled pore volume Vp. is then Thus.Note that during this time period we find. This result leads to a form of well testing sometimes called reservoir limits testing. © UTP JAN 2012 . Vp (cubic feet). Well Test Analysis. by differentiating the last equation with respect to time we get Since the liquid-filled pore volume of the reservoir. which seeks to determine reservoir size from the rate of pressure decline in a wellbore with time. during this time period.

615 qB(t/24) cu) is equal to Substituting in the main equation yields Well Test Analysis.P ) resulting from removal of qB (RB/D )of fluid for t hours. pi. The pressure decrease (pi. The volumetric average pressure within the drainage volume of the well can be found from material balance. P within the drainage volume of the well. A total volume removed of 5. with average pressure.This solution is useful also for some other applications. © UTP JAN 2012 . It involves replacing original reservoir pressure.

© UTP JAN 2012 .Or The main equation and the final equation after counting for skin become Or and Well Test Analysis.

© UTP JAN 2012 . and since the productivity index J (STB/D/psi). Note that for a damaged well. these quantities are equal only when the skin factor is zero.Further we can define average permeability(kJ) such that: This average permeability. bulk formation permeability k in fact. the average permeability kJ is lower than the true. of an oil well is defined as Well Test Analysis. kJ proves to have considerable value in well test analysis. as we shall see later. Since we sometimes estimate the permeability of a well from productivity-index (PI) measurements.

k. © UTP JAN 2012 . Thus. there Is a need for a more complete means of characterizing a producing well than exclusive use of PI information. Example: A well produces 100 STB/D oil at a measured flowing bottom-hole pressure (BHP) of 1.5 cp and formation volume factor is 1.000 psi. Fluid samples indicate that. A recent pressure survey showed that average reservoir pressure is 2. of 1.this method does not necessarily provide a good estimate of formation permeability. the borehole radius is 0. at current reservoir pressure. Logs indicate a net sand thickness of 10 ft. The well drains an area with drainage radius.5 RB/STB.000 ft.25 ft. Well Test Analysis. re.500 psi. oil viscosity is 0.

Estimate the productivity index for the tested well. 2. Does this imply that the well is either damaged or stimulated? What is the apparent skin factor? Solution: Well Test Analysis. Core data from the well indicate an effective permeability to oil of 50 md. Estimate formation permeability from these data.1. © UTP JAN 2012 . 3.

3-Core data frequently provide a better estimate of formation permeability than do permeabilities derived from the productivity index. © UTP JAN 2012 . so Well Test Analysis. Since cores indicate a permeability of 50 md. we conclude that this well is damaged. particularly for a well that is badly damaged.

By radius of investigation. we mean the distance that a pressure transient has moved into a formation following a rate change in a well. © UTP JAN 2012 .Radius of investigation: The radius-of-investigation concept is of both quantitative and qualitative value in well test design and analysis. If we consider a well producing from a formation originally at 2000 psi. We will show that this distance is related to formation rock and fluid properties and time elapsed since the rate change. Both. well and formation have the following characteristics: Well Test Analysis. ri.

likewise. pressures at other fixed values of r also decrease with increasing time. Well Test Analysis. Two observations are particularly important: 1.And calculate the pressure distribution at different radius at production time of ( 0.1.100) hrs as its shown in the above figure.10.1. The pressure in the wellbore (at r=rw) decreases steadily with increasing flow time. © UTP JAN 2012 .

2. © UTP JAN 2012 . after introduction of the fluid volume. Now consider a well into which we instantaneously inject a volume of liquid. Well Test Analysis. The pressure disturbance (or pressure transient) caused by producing the well moves further into the reservoir as flow time increases. the disturbance at radius ri will reach its maximum at time tm . there is always a point beyond which the drawdown in pressure from the original value is negligible. This injection introduces a pressure disturbance into the formation. For the range of flow times shown. We seek the relationship between ri and tm.

Well Test Analysis. a pressure disturbance reaches a distance ri.Stated another way. for the formation with pressure distributions shown in the above figure. the application of the above equation yields the following results. as given by the equation The radius of investigation given by the above equation proves to be the distance a significant pressure disturbance is propagated by production or injection at a constant rate. © UTP JAN 2012 . For example. which we shall call radius of investigation. in time t.

a buildup curve may have a difficult-to interpret shape or slope at earliest times when the radius of investigation Well Test Analysis. For example. © UTP JAN 2012 .Comparison of these results with the pressure distributions plotted shows that ri as calculated from the equation is near the point at which the drawdown in reservoir pressure caused by producing the well becomes negligible. We also use the same equation to calculate the radius of investigation achieved at any time after any rate change in a well. This is significant because the distance a transient has moved into a formation is approximately the distance from the well at which formation properties are being investigated at a particular time in a well test. The radius of investigation has several uses in pressure transient test analysis and design. A qualitative use is to help explain the shape of a pressure buildup or pressure drawdown curve.

In practice.is in the zone of altered permeability. ks nearest the well bore. The radius-of-investigation concept provides a Well Test Analysis. a pressure buildup curve may change shape at long times when the radius of investigation reaches the general vicinity of a reservoir boundary. or some massive reservoir heterogeneity. © UTP JAN 2012 . Or more commonly. we find that a heterogeneity or boundary influences pressure response in a well when the calculated radius of investigation is of the order of twice the distance to the heterogeneity.

© UTP JAN 2012 . For example. we may want to sample reservoir properties at least 500 ft from a tested well. The radius of investigation equation also provides a means of estimating the length of time required to achieve "stabilized" flow (i. How long a test shall be run? Six hours? Twenty-four hours? We are not forced to guess – or to run a test for an arbitrary length of time that could be either too short or too long. Instead. we can use the radius-of-investigation concept to estimate the time required to test to the desired depth in the formation. the time required for Well Test Analysis.guide for well test design..e.

Preliminary well and fluid data analysis suggest that k= 100 md. What length flow test appears advisable? What flow rate do you suggest? Well Test Analysis. ct =2x 10-5 psi.2. and μ=0. Φ=0. ts.5 cp. if a well is centered in a cylindrical drainage area of Radius re. is found to be Example: We wish to run a flow test on an exploratory well for sufficiently long to ensure that the well will drain a cylinder of more than 1. © UTP JAN 2012 . then. setting ri=re.000-ft radius. For example. the time required for stabilization.a pressure transient to reach the boundaries of a tested reservoir).

© UTP JAN 2012 .000 ft from the well (twice the minimum radius of Investigation for safety).Solution: The minimum length flow test would propagate a pressure transient approximately 2. Time required is Well Test Analysis.

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