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Objective i) Describe the principles of production of x-ray from an x-ray tube ii) Understand and analyse the x-ray spectra iii) Explain line spectrum and continuous spectrum

Principle of production


X- ray Line Spectra

Line Spectrum Continuous Spectrum

Cutoff Wavelength

min = hc/eV f Z2
2dsin = n

Moseleys Law
Braggs Law

13.1 Introduction X-rays is one of electromagnetic wave with wavelength between 10-12 until 10-8 m which is shorter than light wavelength. X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm C. Roentgen (1845 1923), a dutch who performed much of his work in Germany.

13.2 The principle of production x-ray from a x-ray tube :

The electrons are produced by thermionic emission from a hot filament. The electrons are accelerated with high voltage and then bombard the target on the anode.

Only about 1% of the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into x-ray and 99% of the kinetic energy is changed into heat. The target must be metal of high of melting point.

13.3 Line spectrum The characteristic x-ray spectrum


The electron which is produced by therminonic emission knock out one of the electrons from the innermost shell of a target atom-the K shell electron.

A L shell electron jumps into the shell.

The difference in binding energies between these two shell is emitted as x-ray of wavelengths given as E = hc/. Thus a line spectrum is produced .

The K-series of x-ray line is due to movement of electrons of the target atom from the L (K line) or M (K line) shells to the K shell.

13.4 Continuous spectrum


The kinetic energy of the bombarding electrons is also lost in the form of the electromagnetic radiation or various energies as E = hc/.

This process of energy changes produces a continuous background radiation.


Question 1. What is X ray? 2. State the properties of X rays?

Objective i. Derive and use min = hc/eV equation ii.Explain Moseleys Law, f Z2 iii.Derive and use the Bragg equation 2d sin = n

13.5 Cutoff Wavelength min


If the energy of the bombarding electron, E = eV is completely absorbed by the atom, then by Quantum Theory the x-ray quantum has maximum energy.

hfmax = eV But min = c/fmax, and hence a minimum wavelength is prodeuced.

13.6 Moseleys Law, f Z2


The frequency f of the characteristic x-rays from metals is proportional to the atomic number Z of the metal.

13.7 Bragg equation : 2dsin = n

= Wavelength of x-ray d = Distance between atoms = The glancing angle n = Order of difraction

If the path difference between two rays = 2dsin = n, constructive interference occurs when 2dsin = n, where n = 1, 2, 3.

Uses of Braggs law : i) To determine the separation of atom in a crystal ii) To determine the wavelength of the x-ray iii) To identify a given crystal

13.8 X-ray analysis


The intensity of the reflected xrays from a crystal, I at various glancing angles, can be measured by an ionization chamber.

The variation of I with is shown below.

The graph can be used to prove the Braggs law 2dsin = n

Example A potential difference of 40 kV is applied across a x-rays tube. What is the minimum wavelength of the x-ray radiated?

Answer E = hc/ = hc/eV =

8 h(310 )

(1.61019)(40103) = 3.1010-11m


Question i)When a beam of x-ray of wavelength 2.010-10 m is incident on a crystal, a third order diffraction occurs with an angle 60. What is the separation between the two adjacent atoms in the crystal. (3.4610-10 m).

ii) A source of 20 kV is connected across an x-ray tube. Calculate :


The maximum frequency and the minimum wavelength of the x-ray emitted from this -11 tube. (6.2110 m)

The velocity of the electron that will produce the x-ray with maximum frequency. (8.38107 ms-1)

iii) An x-ray of wavelength 0.2510-10 m is diffracted at an angle 4.6 by a crystal placed in a spectrometer. If the diffraction occurs at the first order, what is the distance between two adjacent atomic -10 planes. (1.5610 m)

iv) An x-ray is diffracted by a crystal. If the glancing angle is 8 for first order and the separation between two atomic -10 planes is 2.6510 m, calculate the wavelength of the incident x -11 ray. (7.3810 m)

v) If the voltage applied across 5 the tube is 10 V, what is the minimum wavelength of the x-ray emitted. (1.2410-11 m)