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PENGANTAR MANAJEMEN OPERASI

Hermawanto
+6281555999877

hersusbon_2013@yahoo.com

TEXTBOOKS MANAJEMEN OPERASI


(EDISI TERBARU):
-CHASE & JACOBS -JACOBS, CHASE & AQUILANO -HEIZER & RENDER -RUSELL & TAYLOR III -GAITHER & FRAIZER -SCHROEDER -DILWORTH -DAVIS & HEINEKE -DAN LAIN-LAIN, DISAMPING JOURNALS TERKAIT

- Memahami pengertian manajemen operasi, strategi

operasi, dan manajemen kualitas


- Memahami pentingnya peran strategi operasi dan

memahami bahwa kualitas merupakan elemen penting dari strategi operasi


-- Mengenal topik-topik penting dalam manajemen

operasi

PERTEMUAN-PERTEMUAN BERIKUTNYA:
- MENGUMPULKAN TUGAS TENTANG GAMBAR DARI PROSES BISNIS DARI

PERUSAHAAN TEMPAT BEKERJA MAHASISWA ATAU PERUSAHAAN YANG MENJADI TUJUAN BEKERJA MAHASISWA
-MEMBENTUK KELOMPOK (2-3 KELOMPOK) UNTUK MEMBUAT TUGAS

MAKALAH KELOMPOK TENTANG PRAKTEK-PRAKTEK STRATEGI OPERASI DAN MANAJEMEN KUALITAS PADA PERUSAHAAN-PERUSAHAAN DI INDONESIA YANG ANDA PILIH, YANG AKAN DIPRESENTASIKAN PADA MINGGU KE 6

OPERATIONS AS ONE OF THE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRM

Operations
(sekarang)

Production

Marketing

Finance

OPERATIONS AS ONE OF THE (BASIC) FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRM

Human Resource

Operations

Marketing

Finance

MARKETING establishes the demand for goods or services, FINANCE provides the capital, HUMAN RESOURCE provides a talented and energetic workforce, OPERATIONS actually makes the goods or/and provides the service.

Functional Areas of Business

OPERATIONS AS THE TECHNICAL CORE

Capital Markets

Finance Purchasing Supplies

Human Resource

Labor Force

Operations

Marketing

Customers

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
Management of the processes that are used to transform the resources employed by a firm into products and services desired by customers

OPERATIONS AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT


Management of the processes that are used to transform the resources employed by a firm into products and services desired by customers and of how materials and services are moved to and from the transformation processes of the firm

OPERATIONS AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT (OSM)


Is defined as the design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firms primary products and services. Operations refers to the processes that are used to transform the resources employed by a firm into products and services desired by customers. Supply refers to how materials and services are moved to and from the transformation processes of the firm. (Jacobs, Chase, and Aquilano, 2010: 7 & 4).

MANAJEMEN OPERASI

-Pengelolaan proses transformasi dari input menjadi output dalam rangka penciptaan nilai tambah bagi customers

MANAJEMEN OPERASI DAN SUPLAI

-Pengelolaan proses transformasi dari input menjadi output dan pengelolaan pergerakan material dan layanan menuju dan dari proses transformasi dalam rangka penciptaan nilai tambah bagi customers melalui cara yang efektif dan efisien

Apakah esensi dari fungsi operasi?

Syarat Penting

Berlangsungnya proses transformasi dan


Syarat Cukup

terjadinya penciptaan nilai tambah

EXAMPLES OF INPUTS, TRANSFORMATION, AND OUTPUTS (SYSTEM VIEW)

INPUTS
RAW MATERIALS HUMAN EQUIPMENT FACILITIES LAND OTHERS

OUTPUTS TRANSFORMATION PROCESS


GOODS SERVICES

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


(ANDERSON, SWEENEY, & WLLIAMS, 2003: 5)
DEFINE THE PROBLEM

DETEMINE THE OBJECTIVE


IDENTIFY THE ALTERNATIVES DETERMINE THE CRITERIA EVALUATE THE ALTERNATIVES
DECISION MAKING

PROBLEM SOLVING

- CHOOSE THE BEST DECISION(S)


DECISION

IMPLEMENT THE DECISION(S) EVALUATE THE RESULTS

INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT MODEL

INPUT
MASALAH TUJUAN DATA-INFO LINGK KEP PENGAMBIL KEP ALAT-MODEL KEP ALTERNATIF KRITERIA

PROCESS
PROSES PENG KEP

OUTPUT
HASIL KEP
IMPLEMEN TASI

CASE TEACHING

INPUTS Student Instructor Case Reading Room Equipment

TRANSFORMATION PROCESS Managing the in-class discussions to brief formal remarks to discus the case itself to debrief the case analysis process

OUTPUTS Student+++

Apakah alasan perubahan nama dari manajemen produksi ke manajemen operasi?

DARI MANAJEMEN PRODUKSI KE MANAJEMEN OPERASI KEMUDIAN KE MANAJEMEN OPERASI DAN SUPPLY

Peran dari sektor jasa yang semakin besar dan mendominasi GDP
[menurut laporan the World Factbook 2000 (Davis & Heineke, 2005), negara maju > 50% dan negara sedang berkembang < 50%; US: +80%, UK: +73%, France: +70%, dan Japan: +63%]

PADA UMUMNYA, PROSES TRANSFORMASI DAPAT DIKATEGORIKAN SEBAGAI BERIKUT:

-PHYSICAL ( seperti dalam MANUFACTURING) -LOCATIONAL (seperti dalam TRANSPORTATION) -EXCHANGE (seperti dalam RETAILING) -STORAGE (seperti dalam WAREHOUSING) -PHYSIOLOGICAL (seperti dalam HEALTH CARE) -PSYCHOLOGICAL (seperti dalam ENTERTAINMENT) -INFORMATIONAL (seperti dalam TELECOMMUNICATION)

Pada awalnya orang memandang input-process-output sebagai berikut:

Nilai Tambah????

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUTS

Feedback Loop

INPUT
PRIMARY INPUTS

PROCESS
??

OUTPUT
GOODS

TRANSFORMATION PROCESS

OTHER RESOURCES

??

SERVICES

? = terjadinya perubahan fisik untuk membedakan antara barang dan jasa ? = besarnya nilai tambah yang diciptakan

RUMAH SAKIT
PRIMARY INPUTS PRIMARY TRANSFORMATION FUNCTION(S) TYPICAL DESIRED OUTPUT

PASIEN

RESOURCES

PERAWATAN KESEHATAN (PHYSIOLOGICAL)

DOKTER, PERAWAT, PERLENGKAPAN & PERALATAN MEDIS

INDIVIDUINDIVIDU YANG SEHAT KEMBALI

PABRIK MOBIL
PRIMARY INPUTS PRIMARY TRANSFORMATION FUNCTION(S) TYPICAL DESIRED OUTPUT

LEMBARAN BAJA, BAGIAN-BAGIAN MESIN


RESOURCES

FABRIKASI, PERAKITAN (PHYSICAL)

MOBIL-MOBIL BERKUALITAS TINGGI

PERLENGKAPAN, PERALATAN, PEKERJA

PERGURUAN TINGGI
PRIMARY INPUTS -LULUSAN SLTA PRIMARY TRANSFORMATION -LULUS TES MASUK PT FUNCTION(S) - MENDAFTAR KEMBALI TYPICAL DESIRED OUTPUT

RESOURCES

TRANSFER PENGETAHUAN (INFORMATIONAL)

DOSEN-DOSEN, BUKU-BUKU, RUANG-RUANG KELAS & LAB

INDIVIDUINDIVIDU YANG CENDEKIA (SARJANA)

MASKAPAI PENERBANGAN
PRIMARY INPUTS PRIMARY TRANSFORMATION FUNCTION(S) TYPICAL DESIRED OUTPUT

WISATAWAN (Calon Penumpang)


RESOURCES

PERPINDAHAN TEMPAT DARI ASAL KE TUJUAN (LOCATIONAL)

WISATAWAN YANG PUAS (Penumpang)

PESAWAT, PRAMUGARA(I), SISTEM TIKET, SKEDUL

SESI PERKULIAHAN MO
PRIMARY INPUTS PRIMARY TRANSFORMATION FUNCTION(S) TYPICAL DESIRED OUTPUT

MAHASISWA
(SEBELUM MENGIKUTI SESI PERKULIAHAN)

OTHER RESOURCES

TRANSFER PENGETAHUAN (INFORMATIONAL)

MAHASISWA
(SETELAH MENGIKUTI PERKULIAHAN DIHARAPKAN MENCAPAI PEMAHAMAN SESUAI DENGAN TUJUAN SESI)

DOSEN-DOSEN, BUKU-BUKU, RUANG-RUANG KELAS, DLL.

MENGAPA BELAJAR MANAJEMEN OPERASI?

PENDIDIKAN BISNIS TERASA TIDAK LENGKAP TANPA PEMAHAMAN DARI PENDEKATAN MODERN PADA PENGELOLAAN OPERASI
MANAJEMEN OPERASI MEMBERIKAN CARA YANG SISTEMATIK UNTUK MELIHAT PROSES-PROSES KEORGANISASIAN MANAJEMEN OPERASI MEMBAWA PADA PELUANGPELUANG KARIR YANG MENARIK KONSEP-KONSEP DAN ALAT-ALAT DARI MANAJEMEN OPERASI DIGUNAKAN SECARA LUAS DALAM MENGELOLA FUNGSIFUNGSI LAIN DARI SEBUAH BISNIS

Systems View

Contoh Poin 4 HUMAN RESOURCE SYSTEM MODEL

INPUT
HR Competencies

THROUGHPUT HR Behaviors

OUTPUT Productivity, Satisfaction, Turnover, etc.

FIRM STRATEGY

TANTANGAN-TANTANGAN YANG DIHADAPI OLEH PARA MANAJER


- GLOBALISASI PENGEMBANGAN KAPABILITAS BERSAING SECARA SUKSES PADA TINGKAT GLOBAL - TEKNOLOGI APLIKASI TEKNOLOGI SECARA EFEKTIF YANG MEMBERIKAN NILAI TAMBAH SECARA NYATA - PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN SEMUA PIHAK HARUS MAU BELAJAR UNTUK BERUBAH SECARA CEPAT DAN LEBIH NYAMAN

-REVOLUSI KUALITAS TUNTUTAN AKAN KUALITAS YANG TERJADI DIMANA-MANA TELAH MENANDAI TERJADINYA REVOLUSI KUALITAS PADA SEGALA
SEKTOR

PROD = f (K, L, M)
Dari elemen-elemen produktivitas yang terdiri dari modal, tenaga kerja, dan manajemen; elemen mana yang memberikan kontribusi terbesar pada produktivitas?

Menurut Stein & Foss (1995): Tenaga kerja (10%) Modal (38%) Manajemen (52%)

-OPERATIONS AND SUPPLY STRATEGY -QUALITY MANAGEMENT -NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT -PROCESS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS -FORECASTING -INVENTORY MANAGEMENT -PROJECT MANAGEMENT -SIMULATION MODELING -CAPACITY PLANNING -QUALITY IMPROVEMENT METHODS -LEAN ENTERPRISE -TECHNOLOGY AND INTEGRATED SUPPLY MANAGEMENT -GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN AND SERVICE INTEGRATION

Contoh: Designing Jobs and Works


PRIMARY INPUTS PRIMARY TRANSFORMATION FUNCTION(S) TYPICAL DESIRED OUTPUT

?????????

??????????
??????? RESOURCES

???????????

Chapter 2
Pelajari: - Competitive dimensions - Straddling - Order winner and order qualifier - Fitting operational activities to strategy - Framework for operations and supply strategy

Chapter 9

Pelajari: Total Quality Management Quality Specification and Quality Costs Six-Sigma Quality External Benchmarking for Quality Improvement

Chapter 9A

Pelajari: Process Capability Process Control Procedures Acceptance Sampling

STRATEGIC OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT


How the operations of individual company (i.e. manufacturing, services, logistics, purchasing) contribute to success or failure - Introduce operations strategy as a guide to positioning the organization - Quality is foundation of so much of business and forms a key strategic components - Product and service innovation discussions provide a review of the challenges of developing and keeping products and services fresh

LEVELS OF STRATEGY

CORPORATE STRATEGY

BUSINESS STRATEGIES

FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES

OPERATING STRATEGIES

THE STRATEGY-MAKING PYRAMID

Responsibility of corporate-level managers Responsibility of business-level general managers Responsibility of heads of major functional activities within a business unit or division

Corporate Strategy
Two-Way Influence

Business Strategies
Two-Way Influence

Functional Strategies

Two-Way Influence Responsibility of plant managers, geographic unit managers, and lower-level supervisors

Operating Strategies

CORPORATE STRATEGY
- THE OVERALL MANAGERIAL GAME PLAN FOR A DIVERSIFIED COMPANY - CONCERNS HOW A DIVERSIFIED COMPANY INTENDS TO ESTABLISH BUSINESS POSITIONS IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES

- THE ACTIONS AND APPROACHES EMPLOYED TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE GROUP OF BUSINESS THE COMPANY HAS DIVERSIFIED INTO

BUSINESS STRATEGY Business Strategy concerns the actions and the approaches crafted by the management to produce successful performance in one specific line of business.

The central business strategy issue is how to build a stronger long-term competitive position

BUSINESS STRATEGY

Defines the markets, products, and target customers and sets both short- and longterm objectives for the company

(Verma & Boyer, 2010)

BUSINESS STRATEGY Salah satu contohnya:


STRATEGI GENERIK PORTER:
- DIFFERENTIATION - LOW-COST LEADERSHIP - FOCUS

- OVERALL LOW-COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY - BROAD DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY - FOCUSED LOW-COST STRATEGY - FOCUSED DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY - BEST-COST PROVIDER STRATEGY

FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Specify the core goals of areas such as operations, marketing, finance, IT, R&D, and so on (Verma & Boyer, 2010)

OPERATIONS STRATEGY (as an example of functional strategy)


The total pattern of decisions which shape the long term capabilities of any type of operation and their contribution of overall strategy, through the reconciliation of market requirements with operations resources

OPERATING STRATEGY Operating Strategy concerns how to manage front-line organizational units within a business and how to perform strategically significant operating tasks

Kembali ke

STRATEGI OPERASI (SECARA UMUM)


(Heizer & Render)

DIFFERENTIATION COST LEADERSHIP RESPONSE

CONTOH STRATEGI OPERASI SPESIFIK YANG BISA DIGUNAKAN


DESIGN, VOLUME

FLEXIBILITY: LOW COST

SPEED, DEPENDABILITY

DELIVERY: QUALITY:

CONFORMANCE, PERFORMANCE

AFTER-SALES SERVICE BROAD PRODUCT LINE

Mengapa berbeda?
Lihat dua perspektif:

- Top-down and bottom-up perspectives - Market and resource perspectives berikut ini..

Corporate Strategy Business Strategy

Operations OPERATIONS Resources STRATEGY

Market Requirements

Emergent sense of what strategy should be


Operational Experience

Bedakan dengan Operating Strategy


Operating strategy concerns how to manage front-line

organizational units within a business (plant, sales districts, distribution centers) and how to perform strategically significant operating tasks (materials purchasing, inventory control, maintenance, shipings, advertising campaigns) (Thompson & Strickland, 2003)

COMPETING ON WHAT? (GARVIN, 1992)

- COMPETING ON QUALITY - COMPETING ON PRODUCTIVITY - COMPETING ON NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

KEUNGGULAN BERSAING

DIFFERENTIATION . BETTER COST LEADERSHIP CHEAPER RESPONSE FASTER

Lalu, apa yang dimaksud dengan strategi operasi?

Salah satu jawabannya adalah Strategi operasi merupakan pemilihan prioritas yang digunakan sebagai kekuatan-kekuatan untuk bersaing (competitive weapons). Competitive weapons dapat diambilkan dari competitive dimensions/priorities yang terdiri dari: -Cost: Low cost operations -Quality: Consistent quality; superior quality -Time/Delivery: On-time delivery; delivery speed;

product development speed -Flexibility: Range of products/customization; variety; volume flexibility

BASIC OPERATIONS PRIORITIES

COST EFFECTIVENESS PRODUCT QUALITY AND RELIABILITY DELIVERY SPEED AND RELIABILITY ABILITY TO COPE WITH CHANGES IN DEMAND FLEXIBILITY AND NEW PRODUCT INTRODUCTION SPEED OTHER PRODUCT-SPECIFIC CRITERIA

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE

- QUALITY - SPEED - DEPENDABILITY - FLEXIBILITY - COST

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
QUALITY SPEED DEPENDABILITY FLEXIBILITY COST Being Being Being Being Being RIGHT FASTER ON TIME ABLE TO CHANGE PRODUCTIVE

MARKET COMPETITIVENESS

STRATEGIC RECONCILIATION

OPERATIONS RESOURCES

OPERATIONS PERFORMANCE STRATEGY OBJECTIVES

MARKET REQUIREMENTS

STRATEGIC RECONCILIATION
Market Requirements Customers Needs

STRATEGI OPERASI

Important to customers
Performance Objectives

Operations Resources

Priority of Performance Objectives

Performance against competitors

Competitors Actions

LATIHAN

Market Requirements Customers Needs

STRATEGI OPERASI

Important to customers
Performance Objectives

Operations Resources

Priority of Performance Objectives

Performance against competitors

Competitors Actions

Baca baik-baik dan buatlah sebuah executive summary STRATEGI YANG SASTENABEL (SUSTAINABEL) (lihat halaman 58-59.

TIGA BESAR DALAM COMPETITIVE CRITERIA (1992, 1994, 1996, 1998)

CONFORMANCE QUALITY PRODUCT RELIABILITY ON-TIME DELIVERY

Apa saja kecenderungan utama yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap peranan dari strategi operasi?

Meningkatnya persaingan global dan kemajuan teknologi informasi

Diperlukan Revolusi Kualitas

MAMPUKAH KITA MANGELOLA OPERATIONS RESOURCES KITA UNTUK MENJAWAB TUNTUTAN PERUBAHAN TERSEBUT?

DIPERLUKAN SEMANGAT BERSAING MENUJU KEUNGGULAN BERSAING SECARA BERKELANJUTAN

KEUNGGULAN BERSAING SECARA BERKELANJUTAN (S C A) UNTUK DAPAT UNGGUL BERSAING SECARA BERKELANJUTAN, SUMBER DAYA PERUSAHAAN DISYARATKAN: -BERNILAI TINGGI
-JARANG

-SUSAH UNTUK DITIRU OLEH PESAINGNYA


-TIDAK DAPAT DIGANTIKAN SECARA SEMPURNA OLEH PESAINGNYA

Globalisasi Kepemimpinan

Strategik
Hamparan Persaingan Baru Manajemen Manajemen Kompetensi Perilaku Revolusi Kualitas Strategi Operasi Kesuksesan Organisasi

SCA

Perkembangan
Teknologi

INSIGHTS FROM THE WORLD BUSINESS ACADEMY

COMPETITION: STRIVING TOGETHER COOPERATION: WORKING TOGETHER CO-CREATION: CREATING TOGETHER

(A REVOLUTIONARY MINDSET THAT COMBINES COMPETITION AND COOPERATION) CUSTOMERS

CO-OPETITION

COMPETITORS

COMPANY

COMPLEMENTORS

SUPPLIERS

SERVICE TRIANGLE (Albrecht & Zemke, 2004)

THE SERVICE STRATEGY

THE CUSTOMER

THE SYSTEMS

THE PEOPLE

STRATEGI LAYANAN YANG EFEKTIF

MERUPAKAN SEBUAH PERNYATAAN PENTING DARI KEINGINAN

MEMBEDAKAN SECARA JELAS ORGANISASI TERSEBUT DARI ORGANISASI LAINNYA


MEMPUNYAI NILAI DARI SUDUT PANDANG PELANGGANNYA DAPAT DILAKSANAKAN OLEH ORGANISASI YANG BERSANGKUTAN

THE PERFORMANCE PRIORITIES COMPETED BY SERVICE FIRM

UNDERSTAND THE OPERATING FOCUS OF THE FIRM TREATMENT OF THE CUSTOMER IN TERMS OF FRIENDLINESS AND HELPFULNESS SPEED AND CONVENIENCE OF SERVICE DELIVERY PRICE OF THE SERVICE VARIETY OF SERVICE

QUALITY OF THE TANGIBLE GOODS THAT ARE CENTRAL TO OR ACCOMPANY THE SERVICE
UNIQUE SKILLS THAT CONSTITUTE THE SERVICE OFFERING

APA PERBEDAAN ANTARA STRATEGI OPERASI


DENGAN MANAJEMEN OPERASI?

MANAJEMEN OPERASI
Pengelolaan proses transformasi dari input menjadi output dalam rangka penciptaan nilai tambah bagi customers

STRATEGI OPERASI
Penetapan arah/tujuan, prioritas-prioritas, dan pembuatan keputusan tentang operasi dari barang/jasa sebuah perusahaan untuk mendukung strategi perusahaan secara keseluruhan, melalui perekonsiliasian kebutuhan pasar dengan sumberdaya-sumberdaya operasi

STRATEGI OPERASI MEMPUNYAI: - SKALA WAKTU YANG LEBIH PANJANG - TINGKAT ANALISIS YANG LEBIH TINGGI - PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN YANG MENGGUNAKAN DATA YANG LEBIH AGREGAT - TINGKAT ABSTRAKSI YANG LEBIH TINGGI

Quality is good Strategy is better Synergy is the best

?????

(Hermawanto, 2004)

Dengan menggunakan prinsip-prinsip ini, itu, dan inu dimana

inu = membawa yang baik-baik dari ini + itu


Pergeseran = perubahan dari ini ke inu

Quality is good Strategy (includes quality) is better Synergy (together with strategy that includes quality) is the best
(Hermawanto, 2004)

-Apakah anda sadar akan pentingnya kualitas? -Apakah kualitas merupakan bagian dari strategi? -Apakah strategi itu penting? -Apakah anda sudah berstrategi? -Dalam berstrategi, apakah anda memandang perlu untuk bersinergi? -Apakah sinergi telah terjadi?

Apa maksud dari pernyataan berikut ini?

Menurut pandangan kualitas moderen, kualitas merupakan pengendali dari mesin produktivitas

Kualitas harus dimulai sejak dari kualitas perancangannya bukan sekedar berbicara tentang kualitas produknya

EVOLUSI DAN REVOLUSI KUALITAS

TRANSCENDENT
PRODUCT-BASED

MANUFACTURING-BASED
USER-BASED

VALUE-BASED

STRATEGY-BASED

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 1 Uncommitted
Level 2 Drifters Level 3 Tool-pushers Level 4 Improvers Level 5 Award winners Level 6 World class

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 1 Uncommitted

(those that have not yet started a formal process of quality improvement)

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 2 Drifters

(those that will have been engaged in a process quality improvement for up to three years and have followed the available advice and received wisdom on TQM)

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 3 Tool-pushers

(those that have more operating experience of quality improvement than a drifter, usually between three and five years)

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 4 Improvers

(those that may have been engaged in a process of quality improvement for between five and eight years and during this time made important advances)

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 5 Award winners

(those that have reached the stage of being able to compete for the top awards)

Levels of TQM Adoption


Level 6 World class

(this level is characterized by the total integration of quality improvement and business strategy to delight the customer)

QUALITY IS NEVER AN ACCIDENT, IT IS ALWAYS THE RESULT OF AN INTELLIGENT EFFORT

(JOHN RUSKIN)

THE FLOWS OF ACTIVITIES THAT ARE NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

OGANIZATIONAL PRACTICES (Leadership, mission statement, effective operating procedures, staff support, training) QUALITY PRINCIPLES (Customer focus, continuous improvement, employee empowerment, benchmarking, just-in-time, tools of TQM) EMPLOYEE FULFILLMENT (Empowerment, organizational commitment)
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION (Winning orders, repeat customers)

ORDER QUALIFIERS AND ORDER WINNER

ORDER QUALIFIERS: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT QUALIFY IT TO BE CONSIDERED FOR PURCHASE BY A CUSTOMER ORDER WINNER: THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT WINS ORDERS IN THE MARKETPLACE

EFFECTIVENESS OR EFFICIENCY?
MANA YANG LEBIH PENTING:

EFEKTIVITAS ATAU EFISIENSI?

KASUS TEMPAT PENCUCIAN MOBIL

B A

MENUJU ORGANISASI KELAS DUNIA

COMPETENCE MANAGEMENT

???????? ????????????????

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

GOOD STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP

MENUJU ORGANISASI KELAS DUNIA

RAPID INNOVATION

COMPETENCE MANAGEMENT

FLEXIBILITY WASTE REDUCTION QUALITY

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

CULTURE OF THE ENTERPRISE GOOD STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP

PIRAMIDA STRATEGI
COST
FLEXIBILITY SPEED DEPENDABILITY QUALITY CULTURE

THE SANDCONE MODEL OF IMPROVEMENT (MODIFIED)


COST

FLEXIBILITY
SPEED DEPENDABILITY

QUALITY

CULTURE
QUALITY QUALITY + DEPENDABILITY QUALITY + DEPENDABILITY + SPEED QUALITY + DEPENDABILITY + SPEED + FLEXIBILITY QUALITY + DEPENDABILITY + SPEED + FLEXIBILITY + COST

THE SERVICE-PROFIT CHAIN

EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY

PROFIT AND GROWTH

SERVICE QUALITY AND VALUE

CUSTOMER RETENION AND LOYALTY

HAMPARAN PERSAINGAN BARU

- Peningkatan kondisi Strategic Discontinuities dan Disequilibrium


Pengaburan batas-batas industri Hypercompetition

Penekanan ekstrim pada kualitas dan nilai pelanggan Penekanan focus pada inovasi dan pembelajaran kontinyus Perubahan dinamika karir dan ekspektasi karyawan

Hamparan persaingan baru menyebabkan definisi kualitas mengalami revolusi:

Kualitas merupakan komponen penting dari strategi dalam rangka memenangkan persaingan melalui pemenuhan dan pengunggulan kebutuhan eksplisit dan kebutuhan implisit dari konsumen eksternal dan konsumen internal melalui usaha-usaha yang sinergistik

LIMA TIPE KEBUTUHAN (Kotler, 2000)

(Konsumen ingin mobil yang tidak mahal) (Konsumen menginginkan mobil yang biaya operasionalnya rendah) (Konsumen mengharapkan layanan yang baik dari dealer)

STATED NEEDS
REAL NEEDS

UNSTATED NEEDS DELIGHT NEEDS SECRET NEEDS

(Konsumen akan menyukai dealer yang menyertakan cenderamata yang sangat menarik)
(Konsumen ingin dipandang sebagai konsumen yang cerdas)

QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

(What the customers tell you they want which you give them) (What the customers do not tell you they want but assume they will get) (What the customers did not expect or imagine but which please them)

ONE-DIMENSIONAL QUALITY

EXPECTED QUALITY

ATTRACTIVE QUALITY

WAYS QUALITY CAN IMPROVE PROFITABILITY (Heizer & Render, 2005)

IMPROVED QUALITY

SALES GAINS - Improved response - Higher prices - Improved reputation REDUCED COST - Increased productivity - Lower rework and scrap cost - Lower warranty costs

INCREASED PROFITS

-AN ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE -AN OPERATIONS PERSPECTIVE

-A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE -A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE -A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE -THE HUMAN RESOURCE PERPECTIVE -THE VALUE-ADDED PERSPECTIVE -CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES

AN ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE
Interested in applying mathematical problem-solving skills

and models to the problems of business and industry Two of the major emphases in engineering are the areas of product design and process design Concurrent engineering has resulted in the simultaneous performance of product design and process design Another engineering-related contribution to quality management is the field of statistical process control (SPC)

AN OPERATIONS PERSPECTIVE
Like engineers, operations managers are concerned about

product and process design However, rather than focusing on only the technical aspects of these activities, operations concentrates on the management of these activities Operations management uses the system view that underlies modern quality management thinking The system view also focuses management on the system as the cause of quality problems

A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE


Firms establish a planned course of action to attain their

objectives in which this planned course of action must be cohesive and coherent in terms of goals, policies, plans, and sequencing to achieve quality improvement We soon realized that quality management, to become pervasive in a firm, needed to included in all the firms business processes, including strategic planning; thus quality-related goals, tactics, and strategies are becoming more a part of the strategic planning process instead of a separate entity As quality has become integral to competitiveness, strategic planning for quality has become more important

A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE
The marketer focuses on the perceived quality of products

and services As opposed to the engineering-based conformance definition of quality, perceived quality means that quality is as the customer views it Therefore, marketing efforts are often focused on managing quality perceptions

A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE
The financial perspective on quality relies more on

quantified, measurable, results-oriented thinking as quality professionals have had to seek approval for funding quality improvement efforts If the objective of a firm is to return value to its shareholders, the financial views toward quality must be well understood and used

THE HUMAN RESOURCE PERPECTIVE


Understanding the human resource (HR) perspective

on quality is essential because it is impossible to implement quality without the commitment and action of employees Quality management flourishes where the workers and the companys needs are closely aligned When needs are aligned, actions that are good for company are also good for the employee

THE VALUE-ADDED PERSPECTIVE


A value-added perspective on quality involves a

subjective assessment of the efficacy of every step of the process for the customer A value-added activity will have economic value to customer

CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES
Although it is somewhat obvious that differences in

tastes and preferences exist between different cultures, it is not so obvious that approaches to quality improvement may differ according to culture

TOOLS OF TQM - Tools for Generating Ideas - Tools to Generalize the data - Tools for Identifying Problems

TOOLS FOR GENERATING IDEAS -CHECK SHEET -SCATTER DIAGRAM -CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM TOOLS TO ORGANIZE THE DATA -PARETO CHARTS -FLOW CHARTS TOOLS FOR IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS -HISTOGRAM -STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

KEPEMIMPINAN STRATEGIK

KOMBINASI ANTARA KEPEMIMPINAN VISIONER DAN KEPEMIMPINAN MANAJERIAL

KEPEMIMPINAN MANAJERIAL

REAKTIF-ADAPTIF
CENDERUNG TIDAK MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN BERBASIS NILAI

TANGGUNGJAWAB BERSIFAT PENGOPERASIAN


PENGENDALIAN FINANSIAL DAN OPERASIONAL

PEMIKIRAN LINIER
MENDASARKAN PADA EXPLCIT KNOWLEDGE

KEYAKINAN PADA DETERMINASI LINGKUNGAN

KEPEMIMPINAN VISIONER

PROAKTIF
KEPUTUSAN BERBASIS NILAI

TANGGUNGJAWAB STRATEGIK
PENGENDALIAN STRATEGIK

PEMIKIRAN NON-LINEAR
MENDASARKAN PADA TACIT KNOWLEDGE

KEYAKINAN PADA PILIHAN STRATEGIK

MANAGER AND LEADER

MANAGING

LEADING

Plan Organize Direct Coordinate Control

Vision Align Empower Coach Care

GETTING RESULTS IMPROVING SYSTEMS

STRATEGIC VISION
A strategic vision reflects managements aspirations

for the organization and its business, providing a panoramic view of where we are going and giving specifics about its future business plans
It spells out long-term business purpose and molds

organizational identity

THE THREE ELEMENTS OF A STRATEGIC VISION


Coming up with a mission statement that defines what

business the company is presently in and conveys the essence of who we are, what we do, and where we are now Using the mission statement as a basis for deciding on a long-term course, making choices about where we are going, and charting a strategic path for the company to pursue Communicating the strategic vision in clear, exciting terms that arouse organizationwide commitment

THE MISSION STATEMENT: A STARTING POINT FOR FORMING A STRATEGIC VISION


Incorporating What, Who, and How into the Mission Statement: 1. Customer needs, or what is being satisfied 2. Customer group, or who is being satisfied The companys activities, technologies, and competencies, or how the enterprise goes about creating and delivering value to customers and satisfying their needs

3.

ARE MANAGERS FROM MARS AND ACADEMICIANS FROM VENUS? TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACADEMIC QUALITY AND PRACTICAL RELEVANCE

BALDRIDGE, FLOYD, & MARKOCZY (SMJ, 2004)

Ten most popular tools for 1996

Asian Top Ten 1996 (1995)


1. Mission and vision statement (2) 2. Benchmarking (1) 3. Competitors profiling (9) 4. Pay for performance (8) 5. Strategic alliances (5) 6. Reengineering (6) 7. Total quality management (3) 8. Customer satisfaction measurement (7) 9. Customer retention 10. Core competencies (4)

Familiarity with and use of various quantitative methods by management science practitioners, US, 1992 Method
Linear programming Simulation Network analysis Queuing theory Decision trees Integer programming Dynamic programming Markov processes Nonlinear programming Replacement Analysis Familiarity Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Usage (%) 83.8 80.3 58.1 54.7 38.5 32.5 32.5 31.6 30,7 30.5

-PLANNING
-ORGANIZING -LEADING -CONTROLLING

STRATEGIC CONT. FINANCIAL CONT. BALANCED SCORECARD

MODEL ANDIL BERKEPUTUSAN

TINGGI KONSULTASIKAN KEPUTUSAN PADA BAWAHAN BUAT KEPUTUSAN SECARA BERSAMA

TING KAT

KEMA TANG AN
BA WAH AN

PUTUSKAN SENDIRI

PUTUSKAN SENDIRI, NAMUN JANGAN LUPA UNTUK MENGINFORMASIKAN KEPADA BAWAHAN

RENDAH

TINGKAT PENTINGNYA KEPUTUSAN

TINGGI

MANAGERS COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES

STRUCTURAL DECISIONS PERFORMANCE INFRASTRUCTURAL DECISIONS OPERATORS OPERATORS

MANAGERS COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES

STRUCTURAL DECISIONS PERFORMANCE INFRASTRUCTURAL DECISIONS

OPERATORS

Issues in Encouraging Innovation-based Sustainability


Organizational learning is important because the process of innovation involves increasing ones

understanding of both markets and capabilities even when they are themselves changing over time Appropriation means making sure that value of innovation is captured within the firm The idea of path dependencies stresses the important of past decisions on a companys ability to make decisions about its future

SERVICE QUALITY CENTER/SQC (Singapore)


Our Mission

We partner organizations to create SERVICE QUALITY AND INNOVATION (SQI) solutions for corporate excellence (SQC, 2007)

SERVICE QUALITY CENTER/SQC (Singapore)


Three Pillars of Service Excellence

- Excellent Product - Excellent Process - Excellent People

Singapore Airlines/SIA Service Philosophy


- Excellent Product - Excellent Delivery System

- Excellent Mindset (People)

Knowing Customer Requirement (SQC, 2007)


Reliability (ability to perform as promised) Assurance (knowledge and ability to convey confidence) Tangibles (physical appearance and image) Empathy (individualized attention) Responsiveness (willingness and promptness to help)

SIA Customer Requirements

Safety On-time Arrival The SIA Experience

Uncompromising Standards

Recruitment & Selection


Service Delivery Service Recovery

Transforming Customer Service (TCS)


TCS Service Charter
Taking Ownership
(I will be responsible for every aspect of our customers experience)

Seeking Service Opportunities


(I will see every opportunity to exceed our customers expectations)

Exercising Empowerment
(I will take the initiative to find creative solutions to our customers concern)

Becoming Service Champions


(I will be a service champion and through teamwork strive to make SIA the undisputed industry leader)

Some of SQCI Clients


BCA Permata Bank LippoBank Bank Mandiri Bank UOB Indonesia ABN-AMRO ASTRA International BII Garuda Indonesia Telkomsel Jiwasraya

- Laboratorium Klinik Prodia - Mobile 8 - Indosat - Blue Bird Group - PT Sampoerna - Telkom Indonesia - Kalbe Farma - SaraLee - Chevron - Etc.

BENAR atau SALAH?


1. Struktur organisasi fungsional didasarkan atas pembagian kerja dan hubungan kerja yang jelas, sehingga memudahkan kerjasama antar bagian-bagian organisasi 2. Semakin tinggi kualitas suatu barang, ongkos membuat barang tersebut biasanya juga akan semakin tinggi 3. Kita harus melakukan perbaikan terus menerus. Yang penting, hari ini lebih baik dari kemarin dan besok pagi lebih baik dari hari ini. 4. Perbaikan yang radikal/kreatif ternyata kurang sistematis dibandingkan berbaikan gradual. Langkah-langkah perbaikan yang sistematis akan mengganggu proses kreativitas dan inovasi. 5. Ada 2 jenis pelanggan, pelanggan yang ada di luar perusahaan (external customer) dan pelanggan yang ada di dalam perusahaan (internal customer). Agar pelanggan di luar perusahaan merasa puas, kita harus memuaskan pelanggan yang ada di dalam perusahaan.

BENAR atau SALAH? (lanjutan)


6. Ukuran kinerja perusahaan sebaiknya merupakan gabungan ukuranukuran yang tercantum di dalam sasaran perusahaan. 7. Kita harus meningkatkan kemampuan karyawan kita agar menjadi yang terbaik dalam bidangnya masing-masing. Orang-orang yang terbaik tersebut akan memberikan hasil yang terbaik untuk perusahaan. 8. Perusahaan dituntut untuk Think big, start small, and move fast, agar memenangkan bisnis yang sangat keras. 9. Target perbaikan yang semakin tinggi dan menantang akan menyebabkan kemungkinan tercapainya target menjadi semakin rendah. 10.Di abad 21, perusahaan harus bersaing dan sekaligus bekerja sama dengan pesaingnya. Oleh karena itu, perusahaan kelas dunia akan memberikan kesempatan pada perusahaan bukan kelas dunia untuk tetap hidup.

Sudah tercapaikah tujuan materi sesi?

HERMAWANTO