The Diesel Engine

“.... an internal combustion engine in which air is compressed to a temperature sufficiently high to ignite fuel injected into the cylinder where the combustion actuates a piston.”

Roger Krieger, GM R&D Center

Diesel Fuel
If you have ever compared diesel fuel and gasoline, you know that they are different.
They certainly smell different. Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier. Diesel fuel evaporates much more slowly than gasoline -- its boiling point is actually higher than the boiling point of water. You will often hear diesel fuel referred to as "diesel oil" because it is so oily.

Diesel fuel evaporates more slowly because it is heavier. It contains more carbon atoms in longer chains than gasoline does (gasoline is typically C9H20, while diesel fuel is typically C14H30). It takes less refining to create diesel fuel, which is why it is generally cheaper than gasoline.

Diesel fuel must meet an entirely different set of standards than gasoline. The fuel in a diesel engine is not ignited with a spark, but is ignited by the heat generated by high compression. All diesel fuel must be clean, be able to flow at low temperatures, and be of the proper cetane rating.
Cleanliness. Low-temperature fluidity. Cetane number.

Diesel Fuel Characteristics Cetane number Measure of relative ease to initiate combustion Higher number: easier to ignite Octane number for gas: opposite Higher number: less tendency to ignite .

acceleration. of 35 DI engines require a minimum cetane no. warm-up.Cetane Number Ignition quality measure Affects: cold starting.short delay period and ignites readily (100) Alphamethylnaphthalene (AMN) . of 40 . combustion roughness. and exhaust smoke density Cetane number is based on the ignition characteristics of two hydrocarbons: Cetane .long delay period and poor ignition quality (0) It is the percentage by volume of normal cetane in a blend with AMN PC engines require a minimum cetane no.

Cetane Number High cetane number indicates good ignition quality (short delay period) Low cetane number indicates poor ignition quality (long delay period) PC engines require a minimum cetane # of 35 DI engines require a minimum cetane # of 40 Cetane improver additive can improve ignition quality and reduce white smoke during start up .



Fuel Injection In CI Engines Cylinder Pressure Diffusion Combustion smoke Rapid Combustion knock Delay Period .

Fuel Injection In CI Engines 7% decrease in air density per 1000m altitude Less air means less fuel required Fuel injection system has to compensate for air density to minimize smoke output .




multiple functions and ease of use with no risk of fuel spills or contaminated parts. Stan dyne's patented Fuel Manager® range of Available for light. construction and marine applications. industrial. there is a Fuel Manager . medium and heavy duty trucks. and agricultural. flexibility.FUEL FILTERS The fuel filtration and water separation needs of today's new generation diesel fuel systems demand extremely high efficiency.

Typical engines range from 50 to 350 HP. Typical engines range from 10 to 200 HP The FM100 Series is designed for diesel engines with a fuel flow rate up to 80 US gallons/hr (300 liters/hr).The FM10 Series is designed for diesel engines with a fuel flow rate up to 50 US gallons/hr (190 liters/hr). .

Typical engines range from 200 to .The FM1000 Series is designed for diesel engines with a fuel flow rate up to 180 US gallons/hr (680 liters/hr).

Types of filters .

Fuel pump  The ‘traditional’ style of injection pump is the inline pump. They  are typically capable of generating injection nozzle pressures up to about 750 bar in light road  vehicles – towards the lower end of the range that is required these days.. including the Toyota Landcruiser 2H diesel. and very many older  model diesel road vehicles still employ them. . They have been used for many  decades and are still commonly found on agricultural and stationary diesels.

So.                They have a separate pump plunger for each cylinder of the engine. Each plunger has a spiral groove or helix machined on it’s side and cut through to the top of the plunger. coinciding of course with the power stroke of its engine cylinder. At a certain point the spiral groove will line up with a spill port on the side of the plunger cylinder and the rest of the fuel is ‘spilled’. so a 4 cylinder engine has a four plunger pump. each plunger is operated by it’s cam once every two crankshaft revolutions. cam lobes attached. a 6 cylinder engine has a six plunger pump. etc. The pump is run at half engine crankshaft speed and has a central shaft with four/six etc. When operated. . the plunger is pushed up by its cam lobe.

This adjusts the spill point and hence. the volume of its fuel charge to the engine  cylinder. . Because the groove is a spiral shape. the point in the plunger stroke when it uncovers the spill port  will vary as the plunger is rotated a few degrees either way.

As the rack moves back  and forth. This is achieved by each plunger having gear teeth machined to it’s circumference which  are engaged by a common gear rack which runs through the pump body. all of the plungers are rotated  together. So that all engine cylinders receive the same sized fuel charge. The extremes of travel of the  pump rack control the minimum and maximum fuel charge quantities the pump is capable of . all four (or six or more) plungers are rotated together.






Electric Motor 2.PRE SUPPLY PUMP The electric fuel pump comprises of: 1.Roller-Cell Pump 3.Non Return Valve .

.PRE SUPPLY PUMP The roller cell is  driven by an electric motor. Its rotor is mounted  eccentrically and provided with slots in which movable rollers are free to travel.

PRE SUPPLY PUMP The rollers are forced against the base plate by rotation and by fuel pressure . The fuel is transported to the outlet openings on the pump’s pressure side. .

Delivery quantity is directly proportional to engine speed .PRE SUPPLY PUMP variants Gear type fuel pump The drive gear wheel is driven by the engine .  ï ï ï .. Shut off is by means of an electromagnet.

pressure pump The pump plunger moves downwards ë The inlet valve opens ë The fuel is drawn in to the pumping element ë chamber(suction stroke) .High.

.pressure pump At BDC. the inlet valve closes ë The fuel in the chamber can be compressed by the ë upward moving plunger.High.

pressure accumulator (Rail) Store fuel Prevent pressure fluctuations .High.

High. 10mm Length is between 280 and 600mm The volume must be “ as small as possible. ID is approx.pressure accumulator (Rail) Rail is a forged-steel tube.. as large as necessary” .

.Pressure-control valve (DRV) Responsible for  maintaining the pressure in the rail at a constant level.

Fuel Injector The injector on a diesel engine is its most complex component and has been the subject of a great deal of experimentation -. .in any particular engine it may be located in a variety of places. The injector has to be able to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the cylinder and still deliver the fuel in a fine mist.

so some diesel engines employ special induction valves. pre-combustion chambers or other devices to swirl the air in the combustion chamber or otherwise improve the ignition and combustion process.Getting the mist circulated in the cylinder so that it is evenly distributed is also a problem. .

into a pre-combustion chamber .CI Engine Combustion Chambers Two types:  Indirect (divided  chamber) injection .

into  cylinder .CI Engine Combustion Chambers Two types:  Direct injection .

Combustion Chamber Comparison Indirect  Good  Excellent mixing. turbulence characteristics  Can burn lower quality fuel  Lower injection pressure  Less pronounced knock  .

glow plugs  Less efficient  .Combustion Chamber Comparison Indirect  Bad  Very high temperature/pressure in injection  chamber Higher emissions. especially NOx  Harder to start .

Combustion Chamber Comparison Direct  Bad  Pressure rise can be great.  knock High injection pressure. high  quality fuel .

Combustion Chamber Comparison Direct  Good  Lower specific fuel consumption . 20% Lower emissions  Bigger valves. higher volumetric  efficiency .

Direct Injection Air-fuel mixing important  Controlled by:  Use of swirl-inducing designs  Intake port geometry  Piston cap geometry  Injection system design  High pressure  Many nozzle holes  Positioning  Bad: high-tech injection system Good: Higher volumetric efficiency .

DIESEL ENGINES Indirect and Direct Injection FIGURE 4-4 A direct injection diesel engine injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber. . Many designs do not use a glow plug.

FIGURE 4-3 An indirect injection diesel engine uses a prechamber and a glow plug. The initial combustion  takes place in this prechamber. fuel is injected into a small prechamber.DIESEL ENGINES Indirect and Direct Injection In an indirect injection  (abbreviated IDI) diesel engine. which is connected to the cylinder by a narrow opening. This has the effect of  slowing the rate of combustion. . which tends to reduce noise.



which has been heated by compression to a temperature greater than the ignition point of the fuel or about 1.000°F (538°C). .DIESEL ENGINES Diesel Fuel Ignition Ignition occurs in a diesel engine by injecting  fuel into the air charge.


GM R&D Center .Fuel Injection Systems Electronic distributor pump Electronic unit injector (EUI) High-pressure common rail Roger Krieger.

Electronic Distributor Pump .

Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) Roger Krieger. GM R&D Center .

High-Pressure Common Rail Common Rail Spill Control Valve Injectors Fuel Return to Tank ECU High-Pressure Pump .

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