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Broadening the responsibilities of the companys jobs and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to whats on their job

descriptions is the modern philosophy.

THE WORK
PROCEDURAL ASPECTS TECHNICAL ASPECTS Task variety Feedback Autonomy

JOB
FORMAL INFORMAL

Structural Design Quality of management

Social contacts Peer group

RELATIONSHIPS
Job design-a more holistic approach

JOB ANALYSIS
AIM.
Procedure to determine duties of a job and characteristics of a person to ensure full satisfaction to both
the parties.

HOW TO FULFILL THIS OBLIGATION?


1. Job description and Specification 2. Satisfaction to the worker 3. Fulfill the core dimensions of the job

Job Analysis
Job Analysis is the analysis of the job, not the person who is manning it. Job Analysis data may be collected through interviews or questionnaires. The product of the analysis is a description or specification of the job, not the description of the person.
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Job Description
A Job Description is a written description of a job listing the types of duties performed, reporting relationships and the conditions under which it is performed.

Job Description Contain:


Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties

Authority of incumbent
Standards of Performance

Working Conditions
Job Specifications
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Job Title: Supervisor DIVISION: Plastics

DEPARTMENT: Manufacturing
SOURCE(S): John Doe, S. Lee JOB ANALYST: John Smith DATE ANALYZED: 12/26/97 Job Summary The SUPERVISOR works under the direction of the MANAGER: plans goals: supervises the work of employees; develops employees with feedback and coaching; maintains accurate records; coordinates with others to achieve optimal use of organizational resources. Job Duties and Responsibilities 1. Plans goals and allocates resources to achieve them ; monitors progress toward objectives and adjusts plans as necessary to reach them; allocates and schedules resources to assure their availability according to priority. Supervises the work of employees; provides clear instructions and explanations to employees when giving assignments; schedules and assigns work among employees for maximum efficiency; monitors employees performance in order to achieve assigned objectives. Contd. WAGE CATEGORY: Exempt VARIFIED BY: Bill Johnson DATE VARIFIED: 1/5/98

2.

3.

Develops employees through direct performance feedback and job coaching; conducts performance appraisals with each employee on a regular basis; provides employees with praise and recognition when performance is excellent; corrects employees promptly when their performance fails to meet expected performance levels. Maintains accurate records and documents actions; processes paper work on a timely basis, and with close attention to details; documents important aspects of decisions and actions. Coordinates with others to achieve the optimal use of organizational resources; maintains good working relationships with colleagues in other organizational units; represents others in unit during division or corporate wide meetings. Ability to apply basic principles and techniques of supervision. a. b. c. d. Knowledge of principles and techniques of supervision. Ability to plan and organize the activities of others. Ability to get ideas accepted and to guide a group or individual to accomplish the task. Ability to modify leadership style and management approach to reach goal.

4. 5.

Job Requirements 1.

2.

Ability to express ideas clearly in both written and oral communications.

Minimum Qualifications Twelve years of general education or equivalent; and one year supervisory experience. OR Substitute 45 hours classroom supervisory training for supervisory experience

What aspects of job are analyzed?


Duties & Tasks:
Contd. Performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be

collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, efforts, skills, complexity, equipment, standards.
.Human Behavior

Info on human behavior, mental and physical job demands.


Environment:
Physical requirement unpleasant conditions, offensive odors and

temperature extremes. risks to the incumbent i.e hostile and aggressive people etc.
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Tools & Equipment:


Specific equipment and tools. Equipment may

include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a job analysis. Relationship: -Supervision given & received. Relationships with internal or external people. Skill Requirements: The knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) required to perform the job.

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HUMAN

TRAITS QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE TRAINED EMPLOYEE EASIER SKILLS FOR JOB NOT ONLY ACTIVITIES BUT ALSO HUMAN TRAITS

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1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

HOW INFO WILL BE PUT TO USE. THE ORG STRUCTURE. SELECT POSITIONS TO BE ANALYSED. COLLECTION OF DATA. SHARE WITH JOB HOLDER. DEVELOP JOB DESCRIPTION AND JOB SPECIFICATION
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Methods of Job Analysis


Interviews

Questionnaire
Observation Dairies or log Critical Incident Focus & Consultative groups
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Less expensive. Easily available.

Responses often can be quantified.


analyzed in a variety of meaningful ways.. Does not require trained person to interpret.

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May May

be difficult to construct. have low response rate. may be incomplete.

Responses Responses

may be difficult to interpret.

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QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS DataTechniques

Contd. Description

Employee Collectio Group n Focused ON Method

Analysis

1 Task Any-large Inventory Number of Analysis worker needed


2. Critical Incident Techniqu es 3. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

Question Rating of naire tasks

Tasks are rated by job incumbent, supervisor, or job analyst. Rating my be on characteristics such as importance of tasks and time spent doing it.

Any

Intervie w

Behavioral incidents Behaviora representing poor through l excellent performance are descriptio generated for each n dimension of the job.
Elements are rated on six scales (for example, extent of use, importance to job. Ratings are analyzed by 16 computer.

Any

Rating of Question 194 job naire elements

METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS


Techniques

Contd. Description

DataEmployee Collectio Group n Focused ON Method

Analysis

4. Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

Any

Originally designed to improve counseling and Rating of placement of people Group how job registered at local state Intervie incumbent employment offices. Task w/ relates to statements are generated Question people, and then presented to job naire data and incumbents to rate on such things. dimensions as frequency and importance. Time per Observat unit of ion work Systemic means for determining the standard time for various work tasks. Based on observation and timing of work tasks.
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5. Methods Analysis (Motion Study)

Manufacturi ng

METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS


Techniques Employee Group Focused ON DataCollection Method Analysis Description Job incumbents identify duties as well as knowledge, skills, physical abilities and other characteristics needed to perform the job .

6. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis 7. Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ)

Any

Interview

Skills and knowledge required

Managerial

Manager check items Questionnair Checklist of descriptive of their e 197 items responsibilities. Managers are interviewed regarding such issuers on their responsibilities. Responses are analyzed according to four dimensions: objectives, dimensions, nature and scope accountability. 18

8. Hay Plan

Managerial

Interview

Impact of job on organizatio n

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).


A structured, behavioral questionnaire 194 items in 6 categories
Information input Mental processes Work output Relationships Job context Other characteristics

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The

Management Positions Descriptions Questionnaire [MPDQ ] is a 197-item, behaviourally oriented, structured questionnaire for describing, comparing, classifying and evaluating management positions. The latest version of the MPDQ is divided into ten sections. The Position Classification Inventory [PCI] is a job analysis inventory used to classify occupations and to assess personjob fit.
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THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE LIBRARIAN OF PAF-KIET

PREPARE

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LIBRARIAN
Responsible for safe custody, maintenance and improvement of Library.
Maintain issue/receipt of books and journals to faculty members and students. Coordinate with faculty before the start of semester as to the availability of textbooks.

Periodically recommend purchase of new books.


Guide students in their research projects.

Update the books and journals record in the computer.


To take backup of data in the computer.
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BREVARD GENERAL HISPITAL


Job Description

Job Title: Date:

Job Analyst

Job Code:

166.088

January 3,1989

Author: John Doakes Job Grade: Status: Exempt __________

Job Location:Personal Department Supervisor: Harold Grantinni

Skill Factors
Education: Experience: Communication: College degree required. At least one year as job analyst trainee, recruit or other professional assignment in personnel area oral and written skills should evidence ability to capsulize job data succinctly. Contd.

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Effort Factors
Physical demands: Mental demands:
Limited to those normally associated with clerical jobs: sitting, standing, an walking. Extended visual attention is needed to observe job. Initiative and ingenuity are mandatory since job receives only general supervision. Judgment must exercised on job features to be emphasized, jobs be studied, and methods used to collect job data. Decision-making discretion is frequent. Analyzes and synthesizes large amounts of abstract information into job descriptions, job specifications, and job standards.

Working Conditions
Travels to hospital clinics in county from one to three days per month. Travels around each work site collecting job information. Work mostly in an office setting.
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Goal-setting and work characteristics Core Job Dimensions Critical Psychological State Personal and Work Out comes

Skill variety Task identity Task significance Experienced meaningfulness of the work

High internal work motivation High-quality work performance High satisfaction with the work

Autonomy

Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities

Feedback

Low absenteeism and staff turnover


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Work

Simplification. Job Rotation. Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Job Empowerment

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job analysis method that focuses on the skills and behaviours needed to successfully perform a job Attributes model:
Underlying characteristics Causality

performance
HR managers have increasingly focused on person-oriented approaches such as critical incident reporting and behaviourevent interviews to identify the skills and behaviours needed to perform a job. These occupational requirements are referred to as competencies. Specifically a competency is an underlying characteristic of a person that leads to or causes superior or effective performance.

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Motives
Traits Self-concept

what drives, directs and selects behaviour towards certain actions or goals and away from others.

physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations or information.

a persons attitudes, values or self-image.

Knowledge Skill

information a person has in specific content areas.

the ability to perform a certain physical or mental task.

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1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

Conduct interviews to ascertain key business situations and key factors of success. Develop detailed descriptions and behaviours associated . Identify positive and negative behaviours. Review to examine clear understanding, importance, measurability. Discuss with managers Produce list of each competency in terms of behaviours, effective and ineffective behaviours .

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Support

from Top Management Single means and Sources No training and motivation. Activities may be distorted

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Job

analysis is a systematic process for understanding jobs: There should be no violations of EEO requirements. Avoid listing lengthy experience requirements Job specifications and job descriptions should not be based on opinion Need to ensure the legality of the job analysis itself
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NEWER CONCEPTS FOR WORK


1. Path to dejobbing. 2. Enlargement and enrichment.

3. Revolve around natural work groups.


4. Combine tasks. 5. Interact with client/customer. 6. Vertical loading. 7. Open feedback channels. 8. Organizational Development. Flatter Organizations : AT & T, ABB, General Electronic, Work teams Reengineering. : Volvo, Saturn Boundary less Organizations.
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