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Experiment is a test or a series of tests in which purposeful changes are made to the input variables of a process or system so that we may observe and identify reasons for changes that may be observed in output response.

Controllable Factors

X1 X2 Xn

inputs

output

y

Z1

Z2

Uncontrolled factors

Zq

Determining which variables are most influential on the response ‘ y ’ . Determining where to set the influential x ’ s so that y is almost near the nominal value. 3. 4.OBJECTIVES OF EXPERIMENT 1. Determining where to set the influential x ‘ s so that variability in ‘ y ’ is small. ……. 2. Z2. FACTORS AND LEVELS Two types of factors Discreet Continuous . Determining where to set the influential x ‘ s so that the effects of uncontrollable variables Z1. Zn are minimized.

G… Suppose in an investigation on hardness variation in a heat treatment process salt bath temperature is an identified factor.FACTORS AND LEVELS Two types of factors Discreet Continuous LEVELS OF FACTORS The various values of a factor being examined in an experiment are known as levels. stirrer speed is chosen factor. Similarly. 60. 850 ˚ c are three levels of factor of Salt bath Temperature. to examine its impact at 55. . 65. 65. 850 ˚ c . 800 ˚ c. Here 750 ˚ c . Here the factor is stirrer speed. 60. has four levels 55. 70 rpm. Suppose it has been decided to examine three different salt temperatures such as 750 ˚ c . 70 rpm. at a chemical reaction. 800 ˚ c. E.

Number of combination for ‘ F ’ factors each at ‘ L ’ levels is L F i. C – Factors – Three F – Levels 2 L F = 2 × 2 × 2 = 23 = 8 combinations.C at two levels.B. E.G.e. A.TREATMENT COMBINATION A particular combination of levels of all chosen factors in a given trial is called a Treatment Combination. . B.: One is examining parameters A.

.A1 A1 A1 A1 B1 B1 B2 B2 C1 C2 C1 C2 A2 A2 A2 A2 B1 B1 B2 B2 C1 C2 C1 C2 Each combination is called a treatment combination.

.EFFECT OF A FACTOR The amount of change of response due to the change in the level of a factor is known as the effect of the factor. Example: Consider the factors A having levels A1 & A2 and B having levels B1 & B2 Treatment Combination Response A1 B1 A1 B2 A2 B1 A2 B2 72 56 77 73 Effect of A = A2 – A1 (in the sense of average) = (77 +73)/ 2 – (72 + 56 )/ 2 = 75 – 64 = 11 Find out the effect of B.

TAGUCHI TECHNIQUES INTERACTION If the effect of one factor (i. the change in response) is different at different levels of another factor.. This effect is measured as the average difference in effect of one factor when a second factor is changed from one level to another. Example: Consider a 2 factor experiment with each factor at 2 levels with the following results. then the two factors are said to interact. Effect of A at B1 = A2B1 – A1B1 = 50 – 20 = 30 Effect of a at B2 = A2 B2 -. A1 B1 = 20 A2 B1 = 50 A1 B2 = 40 A2 B2 = 12 Suppose.A1 B2 = 12 – 40 = -28 Then A and B interact with each other as effect of A changes dramatically as the level of B changes from B1 to B2 .e.

A graphical representation of interaction is shown below: 50 40 30 20 10 B1 B2 A1 A2 Interaction of factors A and B .

EXPERIMENTAL ERROR The difference between response when the same treatment combination is repeated.REPLICATION Replication of experiment for a given treatment combination. Example When a factor has two levels only one comparison is possible (df = 1) For a factor having 3 levels. . 2 independent comparisons are possible (df = 2) Exercise What will be the df of the interaction between A and B (A×B). DEGREES OF FREEDOM (df) Number of independent comparisons. when A has 2 levels and B has 3 levels? BALANCED EXPERIMENT An experiment is called balanced if each performance level of each variable is exposed to each other variable an equal number of times. Note: The error may also be treated as the natural variability under the given experimental conditions.

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