Concept Of Latitude and

Concept Of Latitude and
Longitude
Longitude
Geodesy and Map Projections

Coordinate systems - (x,y) coordinate systems
for map data, Geographic coordinate system

Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition
of earth datums

Map Projection - the transformation of a
curved earth to a flat map
A Map…
…record of location of objects in geographic
space.
…each location is unique and can be
represented in different ways.
Ø
Pair of longitude and latitude to locate a place
on earth surface.
Ø
ZIP code of a location (Zone Improvement
Plan)
Plane Coordinate Systems
All these methods of fixing locations relates to the
mathematical concepts of Coordinates.
A coordinate is one of a set of numbers that
determines the location of a point in a space of
a given dimension.
Plane Coordinate Systems
Two basic types of coordinate reference system on a plane (two-
dimensional space):
2. Plane rectangular coordinate system
3. Plane polar coordinate system
§The Cartesian coordinate system(also called rectangular
coordinate system) is used;
…to determine each point uniquely in a plane through two
numbers, usually called:
• the x-coordinate or abscissa and
• the y-coordinate or ordinate of the point.
§ Cartesian coordinate systems are also
used in space (where three coordinates
are used) and in higher dimension.
Plane Rectangular Coordinate System (Cartesian Coordinate
System)
Global Cartesian Coordinates
(x,y,z)
O
X
Z
Y
Greenwich
Meridian
Equator

§ The Polar Coordinate System…
… a two dimensional coordinate
system in which each point on a plane
is determined by an angle and a
distance.
Øespecially useful in situations
where the relationship between
two points is most
easily expressed in terms of angles
and distance;
Øin the more familiar Cartesian or
rectangular coordinate system, such
a relationship can only be found
through trigonometric formulation.
Plane Polar Coordinate System
Geographic Coordinate Systems of Earth
In order to locate places on earth, a three dimensional
coordinate reference system has to be develop that takes
into account its shape.
Shape of the Earth
We think of the
earth as a sphere
It is actually a spheroid,
slightly larger in radius at
the equator than at the poles
Latitude and Longitude

The earth is divided into lots of lines called
latitude and longitude.
Lines

Longitude lines run north and south.

Latitude lines run east and west.

The lines measure distances in degrees.
Latitude
Longitude
Where is 0 degree?

The equator is 0 degree latitude.

It is an imaginary belt that runs halfway
point between the North Pole and the
South Pole.
Equator
Where is 0 degree?

The prime meridianis 0 degrees longitude.
This imaginary line runs through the United
Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and
Antarctica.
Unnderstanding
Unnderstanding
Longitude & Latitude
Longitude & Latitude
Typical Graph

This is an example of a
typical graph we are all
familiar with.

The graph is made up of
different “points” with
lines that connect
the points.
Typical Graph

Each point has two
values:

The “X” value that
runs along the
horizontal “X” axis

The “Y” value that
runs along the
vertical “Y” axis
Y axis
X axis
Typical Graph

X value is always
stated first

Followed by the Y
value

The “origin” is the
point where
the 2 axes intersect
with a
value of (0,0)
(0,0)
(3,8)
Y
X
(9,5)
Typical Graph

A point can also have
negative
(-) values

Negative X values are
to the left
of the origin (0,0)

Negative Y values are
below the
origin
X
Y
(-X,+Y)
(+X,-Y)
(+X,+Y)
(-X,-Y)
(0,0)
East West, North South on The
Earth

Let the X axis be the Equator.

Let the Y axis be the Prime
Meridian
that runs through Greenwich
outside
of London.
• Lat/Long are the 2 grid points
by
which you can locate any
point on
earth.
Y
X
East West, North South on the
Earth

Let each of the four quarters then be designated by
North or South and East or West.
N
S
E W
East West, North South on the
Earth

The N tells us we’re
north of the Equator.
The S tells us we’re
south of the Equator.

The E tells us that we’re
east of the Prime
Meridian. The W tells
us that we’re west of the
Prime Meridian.
(N, W) (N, E)
(S, W) (S, E)
East West, North South on the
Earth

That means all points in
North
America will have a
North latitude and a West
longitude because it is
North of the Equator and
West of the Prime
Meridian.
(N, W)
Prime Meridian
East West, North South on the
Earth

What would be the
latitude and longitude
directions in
Australia?
Prime Meridian
?
If you said South and East , you’re right!
What is Latitude?

Latitude is the distance
from the
equator along the Y
axis.

All points along the
equator have a value of
0 degrees latitude.

North pole = 90°N

South pole = 90°S

Values are expressed in
terms of degrees.
Y
X
90°S
90°N
What is Latitude?

Each degree of
latitude is divided
into
60 minutes.

Each minute is
divided into 60
seconds.
Y
X
90°S
90°N
This is also true of longitude.
What is Longitude?

Longitude is the distance
from the prime meridian
along the X axis.

All points along the
prime meridian have a
value of 0 degrees
longitude.

The earth is divided into
two parts, or
hemispheres, of east
and west longitude.
Y
X
180°W
180°E
Hemispheres

By using the equator and prime
meridian, we can divide the world
into four hemispheres, north,
south, east, and west.
What is Longitude?

The earth is divided
into 360 equal slices
(meridians)

180 west and 180 east
of the prime meridian
Y
X
180°W
180°E
What is Latitude?

Our latitude and
longitude might be:

37°, 03’,13’’N

76°, 29’, 45’’W
Y
X
90°S
90°N
So Where is (0,0)?

The origin point (0,0)
is where the equator
intersects the
prime meridian.

(0,0) is off the
western coast of
Africa in the Atlantic
Ocean.
Latitude and Longitude on a
Sphere
Meridian of longitude
Parallel of latitude
X
Y
Z
N
E
W
¢
·
0

9
0
°
L
P
O
R
i·0180°E
¢
·
0

9
0
°
N

Greenwich
meridian
i·0°

Equator =0°


i
·
0

1
8
0
°
O
i Iroyporni)
¢ Iroyporni)
R - Mean earth
radius
O -
Geocenter
Lat/long system measures angles on spherical
surfaces
e.g.
• 60º east of PM
• 55º north of equator
! In Summary
! In Summary
Equator Latitude 0
o
Latitude: (90
o
N to 90
o
S)
Latitude 23½
o
North Tropic of Cancer
Latitude 23½
o
South
Tropic of Capricorn
Longitude 30
o
East
Longitude 60
o
East
Longitude 30
o
West
Longitude 60
o
West
Positioning on the Earth’s Surface
East is the direction of
rotation of the Earth North Pole
South Pole
23½
o

23½
o

66½
o

90
o
90
0
21
st
June
22
nd
December
22
nd
Sept
20
th
March
30
o
E 60
o
E 90
o
E 90
o
W 30
o
W 60
o
W
Longitude 90
o
East
Longitude 90
o
West
Prime Meridian
0
o
Longitude
Longitude: (180
o
E to 180
o
W)
Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.
Now you can find any
desired location on a map!
Geographical Coordinate systems

Lat/long values are NOT Cartesian (X, Y)
coordinates

constant angular deviations do not have constant
distance deviations

1° of longitude at the equator 1° of longitude
near the poles
Globe
• Spherical Earth’s surface
-radius 6371 km
• Meridians (lines of longitude)
- passing through
Greenwich, England as prime
meridian or 0º longitude.
• Parallels (lines of latitude)
- using equator as 0º
latitude.
• degrees-minutes-seconds
(DMS),
• decimal degrees (DD)
True direction, shape,
distance, and area
Geographic Latitude/Longitude
Coordinate System
Ellipsoidal Parameters
b
a
Spheroids and Geoids
Spheroids and Geoids

The rotation of the earth generates a centrifugal
force that causes the surface of the oceans to protrude
more at the equator than at the poles.
• This causes the shape of the earth to be an ellipsoid
or a spheroid, and not a sphere.
• The nonuniformity of the earth’s shape is described
by the term geoid. The geoid is essentially an
ellipsoid with a highly irregular surface; a geoid
resembles a potato or pear.
The Ellipsoid

The ellipsoid is an approximation of the
Earth’s shape that does not account for
variations caused by non-uniform density of
the Earth.

Examples of Ellipsoids
Ellipsoid or Spheroid
Rotate an ellipse around an axis
O
X
Z
Y
a
a
b
Rotational
axis
The Geoid

A calculation of the earth’s size and shape differ
from one location to another.

For each continent, internationally accepted
ellipsoids exist, such as Clarke 1866 for the
United States and the Kravinsky ellipsoid for the
former Soviet Union.
The Geoid

Satellite measurements have led to the use of
geodetic datums WGS-84 (World Geodetic
System) and GRS-1980(Geodetic Reference
System) as the best ellipsoids for the entire geoid.
The Geoid

The maximum discrepancy between the geoid
and the WGS-84 ellipsoid is 60 meters above
and 100 meters below.

Because the Earth’s radius is about 6,000,000
meters (~6350 km), the maximum error is one
part in 100,000.
Representations of the Earth
Earth
surface
Ellipsoi
d
Sea
surface
Geoid
Mean Sea Level is a surface of constant
gravitational potential called the Geoid
Earth Surface: Ellipsoid, Geoid, Topo
• The reference ellipsoid
surface (a map of
average sea level).
• The reference geoid
surface (a mean sea
level surface).
• The real surface of the
Earth (the ground) also
called the topographic
surface.
Geoid and Ellipsoid
Ocean
Geoid
Earth
surface
Ellipsoid
Gravity Anomaly
Gravity anomaly is the elevation difference between
a standard shape of the earth (ellipsoid) and a surface
of constant gravitational potential (geoid)
Definition of Elevation
Elevation Z

P
z = z
p
z = 0
Mean Sea level =
Geoid
Land Surface
Elevation is measured from the
Geoid
Standard Ellipsoids
Ref: Snyder, Map Projections, A working manual, USGS
Professional Paper 1395, p.12
Geodetic Datum
• Geodetic datum defines the size and shape of the ellipsoid earth and
the origin (or position) and orientation (or direction) with respect to
the Earth.
• the direction of the minor axis of the ellipsoid. This is classically
defined as being parallel to the mean spin axis of the earth
• the position of its centre, either implied by adopting a geodetic latitude
and longitude (Φ, λ) and geoid / ellipsoid separation (N) at one, or
more points (datum stations), or in absolute terms with reference to the
Earth centre of mass; and
• the zero of longitude (conventionally the Greenwich Meridian).

True geodetic datums True geodetic datums were employed only after the late 1700s when
measurements showed that the earth was ellipsoidal in shape. The
science of geodesy.
Datums

Commonly used datums in North America

North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27)

NAD83

Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84)_
Horizontal Earth Datums

An earth datum is defined by an ellipse and
an axis of rotation

NAD27 (North American Datum of 1927)
uses the Clarke (1866) ellipsoid on a non
geocentric axis of rotation

NAD83 (NAD,1983) uses the GRS80
ellipsoid on a geocentric axis of rotation

WGS84 (World Geodetic System of 1984)
uses GRS80, almost the same as NAD83
Vertical Earth Datums

A vertical datum defines elevation, z

NGVD29 (National Geodetic Vertical
Datum of 1929)

NAVD88 (North American Vertical Datum
of 1988)

takes into account a map of gravity
anomalies between the ellipsoid and the
geoid
Selected
Ellipsoids
and Datums
Source:
http://maic.jmu.edu/sic/standards/datum.htm