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**Concept Of Latitude and
**

Longitude

Longitude

Geodesy and Map Projections

•

Coordinate systems - (x,y) coordinate systems

for map data, Geographic coordinate system

•

Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition

of earth datums

•

Map Projection - the transformation of a

curved earth to a flat map

A Map…

…record of location of objects in geographic

space.

…each location is unique and can be

represented in different ways.

Ø

Pair of longitude and latitude to locate a place

on earth surface.

Ø

ZIP code of a location (Zone Improvement

Plan)

Plane Coordinate Systems

All these methods of fixing locations relates to the

mathematical concepts of Coordinates.

A coordinate is one of a set of numbers that

determines the location of a point in a space of

a given dimension.

Plane Coordinate Systems

Two basic types of coordinate reference system on a plane (two-

dimensional space):

2. Plane rectangular coordinate system

3. Plane polar coordinate system

§The Cartesian coordinate system(also called rectangular

coordinate system) is used;

…to determine each point uniquely in a plane through two

numbers, usually called:

• the x-coordinate or abscissa and

• the y-coordinate or ordinate of the point.

§ Cartesian coordinate systems are also

used in space (where three coordinates

are used) and in higher dimension.

Plane Rectangular Coordinate System (Cartesian Coordinate

System)

Global Cartesian Coordinates

(x,y,z)

O

X

Z

Y

Greenwich

Meridian

Equator

•

§ The Polar Coordinate System…

… a two dimensional coordinate

system in which each point on a plane

is determined by an angle and a

distance.

Øespecially useful in situations

where the relationship between

two points is most

easily expressed in terms of angles

and distance;

Øin the more familiar Cartesian or

rectangular coordinate system, such

a relationship can only be found

through trigonometric formulation.

Plane Polar Coordinate System

Geographic Coordinate Systems of Earth

In order to locate places on earth, a three dimensional

coordinate reference system has to be develop that takes

into account its shape.

Shape of the Earth

We think of the

earth as a sphere

It is actually a spheroid,

slightly larger in radius at

the equator than at the poles

Latitude and Longitude

•

The earth is divided into lots of lines called

latitude and longitude.

Lines

•

Longitude lines run north and south.

•

Latitude lines run east and west.

•

The lines measure distances in degrees.

Latitude

Longitude

Where is 0 degree?

•

The equator is 0 degree latitude.

•

It is an imaginary belt that runs halfway

point between the North Pole and the

South Pole.

Equator

Where is 0 degree?

•

The prime meridianis 0 degrees longitude.

This imaginary line runs through the United

Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and

Antarctica.

Unnderstanding

Unnderstanding

Longitude & Latitude

Longitude & Latitude

Typical Graph

•

This is an example of a

typical graph we are all

familiar with.

•

The graph is made up of

different “points” with

lines that connect

the points.

Typical Graph

•

Each point has two

values:

•

The “X” value that

runs along the

horizontal “X” axis

•

The “Y” value that

runs along the

vertical “Y” axis

Y axis

X axis

Typical Graph

•

X value is always

stated first

•

Followed by the Y

value

•

The “origin” is the

point where

the 2 axes intersect

with a

value of (0,0)

(0,0)

(3,8)

Y

X

(9,5)

Typical Graph

•

A point can also have

negative

(-) values

•

Negative X values are

to the left

of the origin (0,0)

•

Negative Y values are

below the

origin

X

Y

(-X,+Y)

(+X,-Y)

(+X,+Y)

(-X,-Y)

(0,0)

East West, North South on The

Earth

•

Let the X axis be the Equator.

•

Let the Y axis be the Prime

Meridian

that runs through Greenwich

outside

of London.

• Lat/Long are the 2 grid points

by

which you can locate any

point on

earth.

Y

X

East West, North South on the

Earth

•

Let each of the four quarters then be designated by

North or South and East or West.

N

S

E W

East West, North South on the

Earth

•

The N tells us we’re

north of the Equator.

The S tells us we’re

south of the Equator.

•

The E tells us that we’re

east of the Prime

Meridian. The W tells

us that we’re west of the

Prime Meridian.

(N, W) (N, E)

(S, W) (S, E)

East West, North South on the

Earth

•

That means all points in

North

America will have a

North latitude and a West

longitude because it is

North of the Equator and

West of the Prime

Meridian.

(N, W)

Prime Meridian

East West, North South on the

Earth

•

What would be the

latitude and longitude

directions in

Australia?

Prime Meridian

?

If you said South and East , you’re right!

What is Latitude?

•

Latitude is the distance

from the

equator along the Y

axis.

•

All points along the

equator have a value of

0 degrees latitude.

•

North pole = 90°N

•

South pole = 90°S

•

Values are expressed in

terms of degrees.

Y

X

90°S

90°N

What is Latitude?

•

Each degree of

latitude is divided

into

60 minutes.

•

Each minute is

divided into 60

seconds.

Y

X

90°S

90°N

This is also true of longitude.

What is Longitude?

•

Longitude is the distance

from the prime meridian

along the X axis.

•

All points along the

prime meridian have a

value of 0 degrees

longitude.

•

The earth is divided into

two parts, or

hemispheres, of east

and west longitude.

Y

X

180°W

180°E

Hemispheres

•

By using the equator and prime

meridian, we can divide the world

into four hemispheres, north,

south, east, and west.

What is Longitude?

•

The earth is divided

into 360 equal slices

(meridians)

•

180 west and 180 east

of the prime meridian

Y

X

180°W

180°E

What is Latitude?

•

Our latitude and

longitude might be:

•

37°, 03’,13’’N

•

76°, 29’, 45’’W

Y

X

90°S

90°N

So Where is (0,0)?

•

The origin point (0,0)

is where the equator

intersects the

prime meridian.

•

(0,0) is off the

western coast of

Africa in the Atlantic

Ocean.

Latitude and Longitude on a

Sphere

Meridian of longitude

Parallel of latitude

X

Y

Z

N

E

W

¢

·

0

9

0

°

L

P

O

R

i·0180°E

¢

·

0

9

0

°

N

•

Greenwich

meridian

i·0°

•

Equator =0°

•

•

i

·

0

1

8

0

°

O

i Iroyporni)

¢ Iroyporni)

R - Mean earth

radius

O -

Geocenter

Lat/long system measures angles on spherical

surfaces

e.g.

• 60º east of PM

• 55º north of equator

! In Summary

! In Summary

Equator Latitude 0

o

Latitude: (90

o

N to 90

o

S)

Latitude 23½

o

North Tropic of Cancer

Latitude 23½

o

South

Tropic of Capricorn

Longitude 30

o

East

Longitude 60

o

East

Longitude 30

o

West

Longitude 60

o

West

Positioning on the Earth’s Surface

East is the direction of

rotation of the Earth North Pole

South Pole

23½

o

23½

o

66½

o

90

o

90

0

21

st

June

22

nd

December

22

nd

Sept

20

th

March

30

o

E 60

o

E 90

o

E 90

o

W 30

o

W 60

o

W

Longitude 90

o

East

Longitude 90

o

West

Prime Meridian

0

o

Longitude

Longitude: (180

o

E to 180

o

W)

Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.

Now you can find any

desired location on a map!

Geographical Coordinate systems

•

Lat/long values are NOT Cartesian (X, Y)

coordinates

–

constant angular deviations do not have constant

distance deviations

–

1° of longitude at the equator 1° of longitude

near the poles

Globe

• Spherical Earth’s surface

-radius 6371 km

• Meridians (lines of longitude)

- passing through

Greenwich, England as prime

meridian or 0º longitude.

• Parallels (lines of latitude)

- using equator as 0º

latitude.

• degrees-minutes-seconds

(DMS),

• decimal degrees (DD)

True direction, shape,

distance, and area

Geographic Latitude/Longitude

Coordinate System

Ellipsoidal Parameters

b

a

Spheroids and Geoids

Spheroids and Geoids

•

The rotation of the earth generates a centrifugal

force that causes the surface of the oceans to protrude

more at the equator than at the poles.

• This causes the shape of the earth to be an ellipsoid

or a spheroid, and not a sphere.

• The nonuniformity of the earth’s shape is described

by the term geoid. The geoid is essentially an

ellipsoid with a highly irregular surface; a geoid

resembles a potato or pear.

The Ellipsoid

•

The ellipsoid is an approximation of the

Earth’s shape that does not account for

variations caused by non-uniform density of

the Earth.

•

Examples of Ellipsoids

Ellipsoid or Spheroid

Rotate an ellipse around an axis

O

X

Z

Y

a

a

b

Rotational

axis

The Geoid

•

A calculation of the earth’s size and shape differ

from one location to another.

•

For each continent, internationally accepted

ellipsoids exist, such as Clarke 1866 for the

United States and the Kravinsky ellipsoid for the

former Soviet Union.

The Geoid

•

Satellite measurements have led to the use of

geodetic datums WGS-84 (World Geodetic

System) and GRS-1980(Geodetic Reference

System) as the best ellipsoids for the entire geoid.

The Geoid

•

The maximum discrepancy between the geoid

and the WGS-84 ellipsoid is 60 meters above

and 100 meters below.

•

Because the Earth’s radius is about 6,000,000

meters (~6350 km), the maximum error is one

part in 100,000.

Representations of the Earth

Earth

surface

Ellipsoi

d

Sea

surface

Geoid

Mean Sea Level is a surface of constant

gravitational potential called the Geoid

Earth Surface: Ellipsoid, Geoid, Topo

• The reference ellipsoid

surface (a map of

average sea level).

• The reference geoid

surface (a mean sea

level surface).

• The real surface of the

Earth (the ground) also

called the topographic

surface.

Geoid and Ellipsoid

Ocean

Geoid

Earth

surface

Ellipsoid

Gravity Anomaly

Gravity anomaly is the elevation difference between

a standard shape of the earth (ellipsoid) and a surface

of constant gravitational potential (geoid)

Definition of Elevation

Elevation Z

•

P

z = z

p

z = 0

Mean Sea level =

Geoid

Land Surface

Elevation is measured from the

Geoid

Standard Ellipsoids

Ref: Snyder, Map Projections, A working manual, USGS

Professional Paper 1395, p.12

Geodetic Datum

• Geodetic datum defines the size and shape of the ellipsoid earth and

the origin (or position) and orientation (or direction) with respect to

the Earth.

• the direction of the minor axis of the ellipsoid. This is classically

defined as being parallel to the mean spin axis of the earth

• the position of its centre, either implied by adopting a geodetic latitude

and longitude (Φ, λ) and geoid / ellipsoid separation (N) at one, or

more points (datum stations), or in absolute terms with reference to the

Earth centre of mass; and

• the zero of longitude (conventionally the Greenwich Meridian).

•

True geodetic datums True geodetic datums were employed only after the late 1700s when

measurements showed that the earth was ellipsoidal in shape. The

science of geodesy.

Datums

•

Commonly used datums in North America

–

North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27)

–

NAD83

–

Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84)_

Horizontal Earth Datums

•

An earth datum is defined by an ellipse and

an axis of rotation

•

NAD27 (North American Datum of 1927)

uses the Clarke (1866) ellipsoid on a non

geocentric axis of rotation

•

NAD83 (NAD,1983) uses the GRS80

ellipsoid on a geocentric axis of rotation

•

WGS84 (World Geodetic System of 1984)

uses GRS80, almost the same as NAD83

Vertical Earth Datums

•

A vertical datum defines elevation, z

•

NGVD29 (National Geodetic Vertical

Datum of 1929)

•

NAVD88 (North American Vertical Datum

of 1988)

•

takes into account a map of gravity

anomalies between the ellipsoid and the

geoid

Selected

Ellipsoids

and Datums

Source:

http://maic.jmu.edu/sic/standards/datum.htm

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