chapter three
Values, Attitudes, Emotions, and Culture: The Manager as a Person

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e

Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives
• Describe the various personality traits that affect how managers think, feel, and behave • Explain what values and attitudes are and describe their impact on managerial action • Appreciate how moods and emotions influence all members of an organization

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3-3

Learning Objectives
• Describe the nature of emotional intelligence and its role in management • Define organizational culture and explain how managers both create and are influenced by organizational culture

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Personality Traits
Particular tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways that can be used to describe the personality of every individual
Manager’s personalities influence their behavior and approach to managing people and resources

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Big Five Personality Traits Figure 3.1 3-6 .

Manager’s and Traits • No single trait is right or wrong for being an effective manager • Effectiveness is determined by a complex interaction between the characteristics of managers and the nature of the job and organization in which they are working 3-7 .

Manager’s and Traits Personality traits that enhance managerial effectiveness in one situation may actually impair it in another 3-8 .

Question? What is the tendency to experience positive emotions and moods? A. D. C. B. Negative affectivity Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness 3-9 .

Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion – tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and feel good about oneself and the rest of the world 3-10 .

Big Five Personality Traits • Managers high in extraversion tend to be sociable. affectionate. outgoing and friendly • Managers low in extraversion tend to be less inclined toward social interaction and have a less positive outlook 3-11 .

Measures 3-12 .

and be critical of oneself and others 3-13 . feel distressed.Big Five Personality Traits Negative affectivity – tendency to experience negative emotions and moods.

Big Five Personality Traits • Managers high in negative affectivity may often feel angry and dissatisfied and complain about their own and others’ lack of progress • Managers who are low in negative affectivity do not tend to experience many negative emotions and moods and are less pessimistic and critical of themselves and others 3-14 .

3 3-15 .Measure of Negative Affectivity Figure 3.

Big Five Personality Traits Agreeableness – tendency to get along well with others 3-16 .

uncooperative and antagonistic 3-17 . affectionate and care about others • Managers with low agreeableness may be distrustful.Big Five Personality Traits • Managers high in agreeableness are likable. unsympathetic.

and persevering 3-18 .Big Five Personality Traits Conscientiousness – tendency to be careful. scrupulous.

Big Five Personality Traits • Managers high in this trait are organized and self-disciplined • Managers low in this trait lack direction and self-discipline 3-19 .

Big Five Personality Traits Openness to Experience – tendency to be original. have broad interests. be daring and take risks 3-20 . be open to a wide range of stimuli.

Big Five Personality Traits • Managers who are high in openness to experience may be especially likely to take risks and be innovative in their planning and decision making • Managers who are low in this trait may be less prone to take risks and be more conservative in their planning and decision making 3-21 .

Other Personality Traits Internal locus of control  Belief that you are responsible for your own fate  Own actions and behaviors are major and decisive determinants of job outcomes 3-22 .

Other Personality Traits External locus of control  Believe that outside forces are responsible for what happens to and around them  Do not think their own actions make much of a difference 3-23 .

Other Personality Traits Self-Esteem – The degree to which people feel good about themselves and their abilities • High self-esteem causes a person to feel competent. deserving and capable. 3-24 . • Persons with low self-esteem have poor opinions of themselves and are unsure about their capabilities.

Extension 3-25 .Question? What need is the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well? A. Affiliation C. Power D. Achievement B.

Other Personality Traits Need for Achievement – The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence 3-26 .

Other Personality Traits Need for Affiliation – The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations. and having other people get along 3-27 . being liked.

Other Personality Traits Need for Power – The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others 3-28 .

Attitudes. and Moods and Emotions • Values – Describe what managers try to achieve through work and how they think they should behave • Attitudes –Capture managers’ thoughts and feelings about their specific jobs and organizations.Values. • Moods and Emotions – Encompass how managers actually feel when they are managing 3-29 .

Values • Terminal Values – A personal conviction about life-long goals • Instrumental Values – A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving 3-30 .

Values • Value System – What a person is striving to achieve in life and how they want to behave 3-31 .

4 3-32 . 1973).Terminal and Instrumental Values Source: Rokeach. The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press. Figure 3.

Attitudes • Attitude – A collection of feelings and beliefs • Job Satisfaction • Organizational Commitment 3-33 .

Attitudes • Job Satisfaction – A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs. • Levels of job satisfaction tend increase as managers move up in the hierarchy in an organization. 3-34 . • Managers high on job satisfaction have a positive view of their jobs.

Herman. Figure 3.Sample Items from Two Measures of Satisfaction Source: R. Dunham and J.5 3-35 . B. “ Development of a Female Face Scale for Measuring Job Satisfaction.” Journal of Applied Psychology 60 (1975): 629–31.B.

3-36 .Attitudes • Organizational Citizenship Behaviors – Behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that help the firm in gaining a competitive advantage.

• Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit 3-37 .Attitudes • Managers with high satisfaction are more likely perform these “above and beyond the call of duty” behaviors.

Attitudes • Organizational Commitment – The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole 3-38 .

Organizational Commitment • Believe in what their organizations are doing • Proud of what their organizations stand for • More likely to go above and beyond the call of duty • Less likely to quit 3-39 .

Porter and F.” in J. Wall. Smith. J. B. D. T. 84–86. J. eds. “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. The Experience of Work: A Compendium and Review of 249 Measures and Their Use (New York: Academic Press. S.6 3-40 . W. and P.. 1981). Hepworth.A Measure of Organizational Commitment Source: L. Figure 3. Cook. Warr. D.

• Negative moods lead to fear. distress. 3-41 . and nervousness.Moods and Emotions • Mood – A feeling or state of mind • Positive moods provide excitement. elation. and enthusiasm.

“ Should Negative Affectivity Remain an Unmeasured Variable in the Study of Job Stress?” Journal of Applied Psychology 73 (1988): 193–98. Robinson. J. M. M. J. Webster. and J.6 3-42 . Figure 3. Burke. Brief. P.A Measure of Positive and Negative Mood at Work Source: A. George. B.

and liaison. 3-43 . • Helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of figurehead.Emotional Intelligence • Emotional Intelligence – The ability to understand and manage one’s own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people. leader.

Emotional Intelligence • Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence are more likely to understand how they are feeling and why • More able to effectively manage their feelings so that they do not get in the way of effective decision-making 3-44 .

expectations. and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals 3-45 . values. norms.Organizational Culture Shared set of beliefs.

beliefs. and routines. beliefs.Organizational Culture • When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values. organizational culture is weak 3-46 . and routines a strong organizational culture exists • When members are not committed to a shared set of values.

Organizational Culture Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework – A model that explains the role that founders’ personal characteristics play in determining organizational culture. • Founders of firms tend to hire employees whose personalities that are to their own. which may or may not benefit the organization over the longterm. 3-47 .

Role of Values and Norms • Terminal values – signify what an organization and its employees are trying to accomplish • Instrumental values – guide the ways in which the organization and its members achieve organizational goals 3-48 .

Role of Values and Norms Managers determine and shape organizational culture through the kinds of values and norms they promote in an organization 3-49 .

Factors Affecting Organizational Culture 3-50 .

Socialization Organizational socialization – process by which newcomer’s learn an organization’s values and norms and acquire the work behaviors necessary to perform jobs effectively 3-51 .

Ceremonies and Rites • Formal events that recognize incidents of importance to the organization as a whole and to specific employees 3-52 .

Stock Options C. Money B. Parking Space 3-53 . Plaque D.Discussion Question? What are examples of events that recognize employees and their importance to the organization? Which of the following would be the most meaningful to the employee and to the organization? A.

advance within.Ceremonies and Rites • Rites of passage – determine how individuals enter. or leave the organization • Rites of integration – build and reinforce common bonds among organizational members • Rites of enhancement – let organizations publicly recognize and reward employees’ contributions and thus strengthen their commitment to organizational values 3-54 .

the offices they occupy. and the degree of formality they use when they address one another 3-55 .Stories and Language • Communicate organizational culture • Stories reveal behaviors that are valued by the organization • Includes how people dress. the cars they drive.

S.Gung Ho How would Japanese management training work in the U.? Why does it work in Japan? 3-56 .

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