Some of the material in the lecture slides is adapted from several textbooks and electronic resources
Flow Diagram of a WWTP
Treatment Levels
Treatment
Level
Description
Preliminary Removal of wastewater constituents such as rags, sticks, floatables,
grit, and grease that may cause maintenance or operational
problems with the treatment operations, processes, and ancillary
systems
Primary Removal or portion of the suspended solids and organic matter
from wastewater
Secondary
Removal of biodegradable organic matter (in solution or
suspension) and suspended solids. Disinfection is also typically
included in the definition of conventional secondary treatment
Tertiary Removal or residual suspended solids (after secondary treatment),
usually by granular medium filtration or microscreens. Disinfection
is also typically a part of tertiary treatment. Nutrient removal is
often included in this definition
Advanced Removal of dissolved and suspended materials remaining after
normal biological treatment when required for various water reuse
applications
Levels of Wastewater Treatment
Adapted from MEDAWARE ME8/AIDCO/2001/0515/59341P033, Task 4: Urban Wastewater
Treatment Technologies Part I, December 2004
Screening
These are
Physical processes
Inexpensive
Can be incorporated into WWT operations
Location of screens and bar racks where??
Located at intakes from rivers, lakes and reserviors for water
treatment
Located at the well into which main trunk sewer discharges
for WWT
Sometimes near pumping stations
Whats their function?
Remove coarse solids, sticks
Why??
To avoid damage to pumps or clog downstream sections (pipes
and channels)
Screening
Spacing of screen bars can have
Coarse openings, 50150 mm
Medium, 2050 mm
Fine screens, with an opening of 10 mm
Less as proposed by few researchers
Critical limits for screens
Velocity in the approach channel to the screens should
not be <0.6 m/s
Depth to width in the approach channel ranges from 1
to 2
Installation of screens
With an inclination?
To facilitate the removal of debris
Typical bar racks or bar screens
Bar Racks (or bar screens):
Bar racks consist of bars spaced 10
to 50 mm apart and are usually
mechanically cleaned. The screens
are placed in rectangular channels.
The raking, done by means of endless chains on
sprockets, moves the debri (screenings) upward
and drops in a collection bin.
The screenings are odorous and also
attract flies.
They are disposed by incineration or land filling or
by returning to the wastewater flow after
shredding (using comminutors).
Head Loss
Head loss through the screens
Is a function of the flow velocity and the openings
h and h
1
h
2
= [v
Sc
2
 v
2
]/ (2gC
d
2
) from Bernoullis
equation, where
h
1
and h
2
are upstream and downstream depths of flow,
C
d
is the discharge coefficient (typical value ~0.84),
v and v
Sc
are upstream velocity and velocity of flow through
the screen
Orifice equation is often used
Water profile through the screen
Head Loss and Cleaning
Open area is often reduced by the space taken by
the mesh
Screens to be manually cleaned
The area should be 50% of the open area (the half
clogged condition)
Head loss is estimated at the maximum flow condition
Cleaning of screens
By hand or automatically
Screenings are
Nonputrescible
collected and hauled away to incinerator or landfill
disposal site
Screens at WWT
Coarse screens (with openings of 50150 mm)
Used ahead of wastewater pumps
Openings of 25 mm are suitable for most
other devices or processes
Installed at the beginning of the treatment plant after
the water is pumped from the trunck sewer or influent
wet well
Which are protected by coarse bar racks
Medium to large installations, mechanically cleaned
screens are used
to reduce labor costs
for better flow conditions
improve capture
Screening
Coarse screens
6150mm
Microscreens
<50m
Fine screens
<6mm
Manually
cleaned
Mechanically
cleaned
Static wedgewire Drum Step
Chaindriven Reciprocating
rake
Catenary Continuous belt
FIGURE 8: Definition Sketch for Types of Screens Used In
Wastewater Treatment Source: Metcalf & Eddy, 2003
Types of Screens
Screening Volume Variation
This is a design chart based on data collected from several installations (around 133)
in the US (showing volume variation with bar opening)
Coarse Screenings Characteristics
This tabular information provides information on screenings collected from separate and combined sewer
systems. Combined sewers can produce several times the amount of screenings collected from separate
sewer areas during storm flows (peak collection can vary as high as 20:1 on an hourly basis
Sedimentation / Clarification
Removal of particulate matter, chemical
floc, and precipitates from suspension
through gravity settling
Design variables include detention time,
overflow rate, weir loading, and
horizontal velocity
Basins
Rectangular (more common) or circular
Upflow or radial flow
What is it?
Physical separation of suspended material from a water by the action of gravity
Sedimentation
Inlet evenly distributes
the flow across x
sectional area
~ 25% of tank in theory
Settling gravity settling
Outlet remove effluent
Sedimentation Basin Zones
Sedimentation Basin Zones
Sludge storage holds settled material
~ 75% of the settable solids may settle in the first
1/5 portion of the tank
Depth for sludge storage should be about 0.3m near
the outlet and 2m near the inlet
~ 1 to 10% slope
1% for mechanically cleaned
5 to 10% for manually cleaned
Primary Sedimentation Basins
Design principles
Basic design principles evolved for sedimentation in water treatment apply
for wastewater treatment also.
The solids settling at the bottom of the sedimentation basin (referred to as
primary sludge) is removed by mechanical scrapers. Grease and oil which
float to the surface are removed by a skimming system.
Surface loading is the controlling parameter
typical values ranging from 25 to 50 m
3
/m
2
.d
Detention time: 1.5 to 2.5 h
Weir loading: 120  200 m
3
/m.d
Depth: 2  5 m (~3.5 m)
Length to width ratio for rectangular basins: 3 to 5:1
Efficiency of primary settling basins:
Suspended solids removal: 50  60%
BOD removal: 30  35%
Sedimentation Types
What is it?
Physical separation of suspended material from a water by the
action of gravity
Settling properties of particles are often categorized into
one of three classes:
Type I  particles settle discretely at a constant settling velocity
(i.e., no flocculation)
Type II  particles flocculate during sedimentation (since they
flocculate their size is constantly changing (i.e., v
s
is )
Type III  particles settle as a mass (i.e., lime softening)
Hindered settling  Particle concentration is sufficiently high to cause
particles to settle as a structured mass
Compression settling  Particle concentration in the lower regions of the
basin are sufficiently high to provide structural support for particles
above
Type I  Discreet Settling
Particles settle
without significant interparticle interaction
due to low concentration of particles
Analysis is by use of Stokes' equation
Application is typically grit removal
Type II Flocculant settling
Particles agglomerate, thus increasing
their size during the sedimentation
process
Analysis is by empirical method using
laboratory sedimentation data
Flocculant sedimentation is usually the
dominant process in
primary clarification, settling following attached
growth bioprocesses and water treatment
clarification
Type III Hindered and Compression Settling
Hindered settling
Particle concentration is sufficiently high to cause particles
to settle as a structured mass
Compression settling
Particle concentration in the lower regions of the basin are
sufficiently high to provide structural support for particles
above
Analysis for these types are done using
both empirical and theoretical methods
Hindered and compression settling
usually dominant in activated sludge final clarifiers and
sludge thickening tanks
Sedimentation
A discrete particle's velocity can be
described by an explicit equation
developed by Stokes.
What is the key parameter needed prior to
designing a basin?
Settling velocities of particles must be known
Physical properties determine the settling
velocities
Forces Acting on a particle
F
F
F
What are the three forces acting
on a particle settling in water or
another fluid?
Type I Analysis
F
d
= the drag, acting in the
upward direction as the particle
settles
F
b
= the buoyancy due to the
water displaced by the particle,
acting in the upward direction
F
g
= the gravitational force,
acting in the downward direction
F
d
F
b
F
g
Type I Analysis
F
g
= m
p
g [Gravity term]
g = gravitational constant, [9.8
m/s
2
]
m
p
= particle mass, [Kg]
F
+
F
=
F
b d g
] [ term Drag
V
A
C
2
1
=
F
2
w
d d
C
d
= drag coefficient, dimensionless
A = particle crosssectional area, [m
2
]
w
= density of water, [Kg/m
3
]
V = velocity, [m/s]
The buoyant force acting on the particle is:
[Buoyancy term]
m
w
= mass of water displaced, [Kg]
g m =
F
w
b
g
V
+
v
A
C
2
1
= g
V
p
w
2
w
d p p

F
g
F
b
F
D
When above three relationships are substituted into
the overall force balance equation, one can get
(
w
d
p
w p
2
1
A
C
g
V
)  2(
= V
Stokes Equation
(
w
d
p
w p
2
1
C
g
d
)  (
3
4
= V
Solving for the settling velocity, V,
If we assume a spherical particle (the
assumption is reasonably accurate), the
relationships for particle area and volume can
be used, yielding:
Stokes Law
Using the previous relationships, the
particle settling velocity can be
estimated
as a function of the properties of the particle and
water, and the particle diameter
This relationship is known as Stokes'
Law, and the velocity is known as the
Stokes' velocity.
It is the terminal settling velocity for a particle.
18
g
d
)  (
=
V
2
w p
p
Grit Removal
Typical grit chambers are designed to retain
particles with a diameter greater than 0.21
mm or 0.0083 in.
The vertical velocity of water in a grit chamber
or settling basin is often termed the overflow
rate.
Although it is a velocity, it is usually expressed
as m
3
/m
2
day or Gal/ft
2
day.
O/F = overflow rate (velocity), [m
3
/m
2
day]
Q = flow rate, [m
3
/day]
A = clarifier area, [m
2
]
=
18
g
d
)  (
=
V
A
Q
= O/F
2
w p
p
Application
To remove a specific size particle
set its Stokes' velocity equal to the overflow rate.
Example
Estimate the settling velocity of sand (density =
2650 Kg/m
3
) with a mean diameter of 0.21 mm.
Assume the sand is approximately spherical.
(Sand is not spherical but the assumption works
well.)
Using a scale up factor of 1.4 to account for inlet
and outlet losses, estimate the area required for
a grit chamber to remove the sand if the flow
rate is 0.10 m
3
/sec.
From a table providing the properties of water:
the density of water at 20C is 998 Kg/m
3
.
the viscosity of water at 20C is 1.01 x 10
3
Nsec/m
2
(Newton = Kgm/s
2
).
Solution Contd
Use Stokes' settling velocity
Calculate the overflow rate
(3.9 cm/sec)
Estimate the area required for the grit
chamber
(3.6 m
2
)  the area required for the grit chamber to
remove 0.21 mm grit from the wastewater.
Grit Chamber
Grit
Inert and inorganic material (sand, gravel, road
grit, metal pieces, bone chips, glass pieces, etc)
in the wastewater
Function
To protect equipment from abrasion (for pumps
and other mechanical devices), to prevent pipe
clogging, and to prevent accumulation in
settling basin, digestors, etc.
Design principle:
The grit chamber must be designed to remove
only grit and not organic matter. Organic
matter will be kept in suspension, and any
organic matter that might settle must be
resuspended by scour.
Grit with a specific gravity of 2.65 has a settling
velocity of 30 mm/s.
Organic particle with a specific gravity of 1.10
has a settling velocity of 3 mm/s.
The design of a grit chamber exploits the
difference in settling velocities of these
particles.
Horizontalflow, grit chambers
In a horizontalflow,
velocity controlled grit chamber, the velocity of wastewater
flow is maintained at 0.30 m/s so that only grit will settle out.
This grit chamber will have to be designed to maintain
constant velocity of 0.3 m/s.
Maintaining a constant velocity of 0.3 m/s can be
achieved in:
a channel of parabolic crosssection, controlled by a
downstream standing wave flume, or a channel of rectangular
crosssection, controlled by a proportionalflow weir at the
outlet
The grit chambers are narrow channels also with a
length to depth ratio of 20:1. The detention time is
about 1 min.
Aerated grit chambers are also used for grit removal.
The grit, removed by mechanical collectors, is disposed of by burial or used as a fill
material. If it still contains organic material, it is sent to sanitary landfills.
Horizontal Flow Grit Chamber
Scraper mechanism moves grit
to center for removal
In order for grit to be
removed in a horizontal
flow grit chamber, it
must reach the bottom
of the chamber (or tank)
before the flow carrying
it reaches the exit. Thus
removal of a particle is
dependent on
its settling velocity,
the flow rate into the tank,
the basin or tank size.
Sedimentation Design
t = V / Q
v
o
= Q / A
v
o
= Overflow Rate
(gal/day)
A = Total Surface
Area (ft
2
)
If v
s
> v
o
particles
will settle!
Sketch for an ideal, horizontal flow, rectangular basin
H  effective depth of the settling zone
v
f
longitudinal velocity of the water
B width of the basin
v
1
and v
0
settling velocities applied to different particles entering at the top of basin
v
2
applies to a particle entering the settling zone at a height h, above the sludge zone
Sedimentation Design
Design volume must be related to
The influent flow rate and particle settling velocity
Particle that takes the longest time to remove will be the one that enters
at the top of the effective zone
V
o
= Design settling velocity = Q/A
Implying that design is independent of the depth and depends only on the surface
overflow or loading rate
If particle velocity < v
o
it will eventually exit with the effluent overflowing
from the basin
If particle velocity> v
o
it will be removed after being introduced into the
basin regardless of the residence time of water in the basin
Sketch for an ideal, horizontal flow, rectangular basin
V
f
D
L
Settling Velocities & Limits
What minimum settling velocity is required to
remove a grit particle entering the chamber at
the water surface?
Settling Velocities and Limits
What minimum settling velocity is required to
remove a grit particle entering the chamber at
the water surface?
V
f
D
L
V
c
V
r
V
f
D
L
Settling Velocities and Limits
What happens when a particle with a settling
velocity of V
c
enters at some level below the
water surface?
D
L
Settling Velocities and Limits
What happens when a particle with a settling
velocity of V
c
enters at some level below the
water surface?
It will impact before the end of the chamber.
V
c
V
r
V
f
V
f
D
L
Settling Velocities and Limits
What happens when a particle with a settling
velocity of less than V
c
enters at the water
surface?
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
D
L
Settling Velocities and Limits
What happens when a particle with a settling
velocity of less than V
c
enters at the water
surface?
It will not be removed.
V<V
c
V
p
D
L
Settling Velocities and Limits
What happens when a particle with a settling
velocity of less than V
c
enters at a point below
water surface?
It is dependent on depth and settling velocity.
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
{
No
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
{
Yes
D
L
Settling Velocities and Limits
What happens when a particle with a settling
velocity of less than V
c
enters at a point below
water surface?
It is dependent on depth and settling velocity.
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
{
No
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
V
f
V<V
c
V
p
{
Yes
Horizontal Flow Grit Chamber
{
{
No
Yes
V
f
V
r
V
p
V
c
D
L
Grit Chamber Removal
Any particle with a critical settling velocity
greater than or equal to V
c
will always be
removed before exiting the chamber.
Particles with velocities less than V
c
will be
removed only partially.
{
{
No
Yes
V
f
V
r
V
p
V
c
D
L
Grit Chamber Removal
Let us suppose a particle has a settling velocity
of V
c
as it enters the chamber.
If the entry point is near the bottom of the chamber, it will
be removed.
If it is near the top of the tank it will not be removed.
{
{
No
Yes
V
f
V
r
V
p
V
c
D
L
Example: Grit Chamber Design
Design a grit chamber to remove sand
particles (
p
= 2650 kg/m
3
) with a mean
diameter of 0.21 mm. The wastewater
flow is 10,000 m
3
/d. A velocity of 0.3
m/s will be automatically maintained,
and the depth must be 1.5 times the
width at maximum flow.
Assumptions:
The sand is spherical and the temperature of the
wastewater is 20
o
C.
Example: Grit Chamber Design
Calculate settling velocity
0.039 m/s
Calculate the crosssectional area
0.39 m
2
Calculate the width and depth
0.51 m and 0.76 m
Determine the detention time required for a particle to
fall the entire tank depth
19.4 s
Determine the length to achieve this detention time
5.8 m
The tank must have dimensions
W = 0.51 m, D = 0.76 m, L = 5.8 m
Example: Grit Chamber Design
Calculate the crosssectional area
v
Q
A
x
=

.

\


.

\


.

\



.

\

=
s
min
min
d
m
s
d
m
3
60 1440 3 . 0
000 , 10
x
A
2
m 39 . 0 =
x
A
Example: Grit Chamber Design
Calculate the width and depth
2
5 . 1 5 . 1 W W W A
x
= =
m 51 . 0
5 . 1
39 . 0
5 . 1
5 . 0 5 . 0
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
x
A
W
m 76 . 0 5 . 1 51 . 0 5 . 1 = = =W D
Example: Grit Chamber Design
Determine the detention time required for a particle to fall
the entire tank depth
Determine the length to achieve this detention time
Thus, the tank must have dimensions
W = 0.51 m
D = 0.76 m
L = 5.8 m
s
m/s
m
4 . 19
039 . 0
76 . 0
= = =
s
d
v
D
t
m m/s s 8 5 3 0 4 . 19 . . v t L
d
= = =
Grit Chamber Removal
We can calculate the fraction removed for any given particle
size (and thus settling velocity). The velocity vectors
depicting this can be shown graphically. Removal rate
calculations will now be developed.
The vertical velocity of water in a sedimentation basin, V, is
a function of the volumetric flow rate, Q, and the area of the
basin, A, or, V
c
= Q/A
However, the volumetric flow rate is also equal to the basin
volume, V, divided by the detention time u, or, Q =V/
V
c
= V/A
Since V/A is the basin height (or depth), V
c
=h/
meaning that the critical settling velocity in a sedimentation basin is a function of
the basin depth, h, and the hydraulic detention time, u.
Grit Characteristics
Grit is composed of a variety of particle
sizes
Particle settling velocity varies with
particle density and size
Determine the size distribution and
settling velocities
Screening Grit
The grit is placed in a screening device with
successively smaller screen sizes
As the screens and grit are vibrated, grit
passes through successive screens until it is
retained on a screen with openings smaller
than the grit
Each fraction can then be weighed to
determine its contribution
Settling Velocities
The mean settling velocity of each
fraction can then be determined by
experiment or Stokes' Law
Grit Removal
To calculate the fraction of grit removed
we note that all grit particles with a
settling velocity equal to or greater than
V
c
are removed, or
( )
( )


.

\

>
= >
t
c p
c p
m
V V m
1 V V R
Where
R is the removal contribution for particles with a settling velocity greater than or equal to
the critical settling velocity, V
c
m is the mass fraction with a settling velocity greater than or equal to the critical settling
velocity, v
c
A fraction, but not all, of the grit particles with a settling velocity less than
V
c
are also removed
Grit Removal
For each size fraction, the removal is equal to the ratio of the average
particle velocity divided by the critical removal velocity, or (V
P
/V
C
)
The fractional removal of particles with a settling velocity less than V
c
is
then:
Since both V
c
and m
t
are constants, they can be removed from the
summation, yielding:
The total removal is then the sum of the two fractions, or:
The application of this is demonstrated in the example to follow.
( )
t
i
n
1 i
c
i , p
c p
m
m
V
V
V V R
=
= <
( )
=
= <
n
1 i
i i , p
t c
c p
m V
m V
1
V V R
( )
=
+
>
=
n
1 i
i i , p
t c t
c p
m V
m V
1
m
V V m
R
Sedimentation Design
h/H < v/v
o
Fractional removal h/H = v/v
o
Proposed by Bharagave and Rajgopal (1989),
J. Environ Eng Div., ASCE, pp. 11911198.
U is the ratio of sizes through which 60 and 10% by wt of the particles pass
(the size through which 10% by wt of the particles pass)
Sedimentation Design
Sedimentation Design
U is the ratio of sizes through which 60
and 10% by wt of the particles pass
P
10
is the size through which 10%
by wt of the particles pass
Design Continued
Weir loading divide the average daily
quantity of flow by the total effluent
weir length (gal/d.ft)
________________________________
Type of Flow Weir Loading
______________ _________m
3
/dm ____
Light alum floc low TU 143 179
Heavy alum floc high TU 179 268
Heavy floc from lime softening 268 322
_____________________________________
Sedimentation Rules of Thumb
Detention time > 4 hours
Horizontal velocity s 0.5 ft/min
Max weir loading 20,000 gal/dayft
v
o
between 500  800 gal/day ft
2
v
s
> v
o
Sedimentation Concepts
Two critical variables in the design of
sedimentation basins are v
s
and v
o
If v
s
> v
o
, particles will settle
For design, find v
s
and let v
o
= 80% v
s
P = 100 v
s
/ v
o
P = % of particles removed
It is best to determine v
s
based on sedimentation
lab data
Example
Estimate the amount of grit removed from a
grit chamber with an inflow of 12,500 m
3
/day
and effective area of 5 m by 5 m (or 25 m
2
). A
sieve analysis with approximate settling
velocities is shown in the following table.
Weight
Fraction
Settling Vel.,
m/min
0.02 0.05
0.05 0.15
0.05 0.2
0.1 0.3
0.1 0.4
0.2 1
0.2 2
0.28 4
Solution
First, we need to calculate the critical
settling velocity:
V
c
= 0.35 m/min
Note that the weight fractions with settling velocities
greater than 0.35 m/min will be removed completely.
Next, calculate the fractional removal:
Grit removal of 92%.
( )
=
+
>
=
n
1 i
i i , p
t c t
c p
m V
m V
1
m
V V m
R
day m
m
500
m 25
day
m
500 , 12
A
Q
V
2
3
2
3
c
= = =
min
m
35 . 0 V
c
=
Solution
First, we need to calculate the critical
settling velocity:
Settling Velocities
Weight
Fraction
Settling Vel.,
m/min
Comment
0.02 0.05 V<V
c
; Fract. removed
0.05 0.15 V<V
c
; Fract. removed
0.05 0.2 V<V
c
; Fract. removed
0.1 0.3 V<V
c
; Fract. removed
0.1 0.4 V>V
c
; All removed
0.2 1 V>V
c
; All removed
0.2 2 V>V
c
; All removed
0.28 4 V>V
c
; All removed
Settling Velocities
Weight
Fraction
Settling Vel.,
m/min
Fraction
Removed
0.02 0.05 0.00288
0.05 0.15 0.0216
0.05 0.2 0.0288
0.1 0.3 0.0864
0.1 0.4 0.1
0.2 1 0.2
0.2 2 0.2
0.28 4 0.28
Sum = 0.92
( )
=
+
>
=
n
1 i
i i , p
t c t
c p
m V
m V
1
m
V V m
R
Solution
Note that the weight fractions with
settling velocities greater than 0.35
m/min will be removed completely.
Next, calculate the fractional removal:
( )
=
+
>
=
n
1 i
i i , p
t c t
c p
m V
m V
1
m
V V m
R
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )] 3 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 05 . 0
15 . 0 05 . 0 05 . 0 02 . 0 [
0 . 1 35 . 0
1
0 . 1
28 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0
R
+
+ +
+
+ + +
=
92 . 0 14 . 0 78 . 0 R = + =
Solution
Thus, a grit removal of 92%
Weight
Fraction
Settling Vel.,
m/min
Fraction
Removed
0.02 0.05 0.00288
0.05 0.15 0.0216
0.05 0.2 0.0288
0.1 0.3 0.0864
0.1 0.4 0.1
0.2 1 0.2
0.2 2 0.2
0.28 4 0.28
Sum = 0.92
( )
=
+
>
=
n
1 i
i i , p
t c t
c p
m V
m V
1
m
V V m
R
Horizontal Flow Grit Chamber
Typical loading parameters are:
Detention time of 45 to 90 s at peak flow
Horizontal velocity of 0.8 to 1.3 ft/s
Head loss 30 to 40% of channel depth
Aerated Grit Chamber
Another common method of removing grit is
the aerated grit chamber.
The water enters a concrete basin with aerators along
one side at the bottom.
The critical design parameters for an aerated grit
chamber are:
a detention time of 2 to 5 minutes at peak flow and
an air supply of 2 to 5 ft
3
/minft of chamber length
Air in
Aerated Grit Chamber
Air induces a
spiral flow
through the
chamber
Grit falls out
beneath the
aerator in a
collection
channel
Aerated Grit Chamber
Aerated grit chambers have the following
typical physical size restrictions:
a length of 25 to 65 ft.
depth of 7 to 15 ft.
width of 8 to 25 ft.
length to width ratio of 3:1 to 5:1
width to depth ratio of 1:1 to 5:1
A plant with a peak flow of less than 3
MGD will be over designed.
Example: Aerated Grit Chamber
Estimate the volume of an aerated grit chamber
for Carbondales Southeast WWTP. Assume a
detention time of 3 minutes at a peak flow of 12
MGD.
To complete the design, the length, width, depth
and air requirements must also be calculated.
Q V =
( )

.

\


.

\


.

\

=
min 60
hr
hr 24
d
min 3
d
Gal
10 x 12 V
6
3
ft 3340 Gal 000 , 25 V = =
Flocculant Settling
Flocculant or Type II settling occurs
when particle concentrations are
sufficiently high that particles collide
and agglomerate as they settle.
As a result of this agglomeration
process, the particle size distribution, as
well as effective density, does not
remain constant but instead, changes
with depth.
Thus, Stokes Law is difficult to apply.
Flocculant Settling Contd
No straightforward analytical solution
to this type of settling has been
developed.
Flocculant settling is usually analyzed
by empirical means using laboratory
data obtained from column settling
experiments.
Such experiments yield the suspended
solids concentrations at various
depths over the anticipated settling
time.
Settling column description
at least 8 in. in diameter
approximately the same depth as the
anticipated sedimentation basin
h
0
h
1
h
2
h
3
h
4
h
5
h
6
h
7
A
h
0
A
h
1
A
h
2
A
h
3
A
h
4
A
h
5
A
h
6
h
8
A
h
7
Scale Up Factors
When column settling data is used to
size a sedimentation basin (primary,
secondary, or thickening)
the final calculated area or detention time is usually
multiplied by a scaleup factor of 1.25 to 1.5
Why??
to allow for the less than ideal settling which occurs in
a real basin.
[See Wastewater Engineering, M&E]
Sampling Procedure
A sample of the wastewater to be treated is
placed in the column and initially mixed.
An initial set of data is taken from the sampling
ports and analyzed to determine the starting
solids concentration as well as the initial
uniformity of the solids.
At time intervals thereafter, the ports are
sampled to determine the suspended solids
concentration. This process is continued for
approximately two to three hours.
The data collected then provides a history of the
suspended solids concentration versus time for
different heights in the column.
This information, in turn, can then be used to
estimate the basin suspended solids removal
versus time.
h
0
h
1
h
2
h
3
h
4
h
5
h
6
h
7
A
h
0
A
h
1
A
h
2
A
h
3
A
h
4
A
h
5
A
h
6
h
8
A
h
7
Flocculant Analysis
If we look at one sampling port
on the column, h
1
, the initial
suspended solids concentration
is TSS
h10
.
If, in fact, the entire column has
a uniform initial TSS
concentration, then it is TSS
0
at
all heights.
At some later time, At, the
concentration at sampling point
h
1
is then TSS
h1At
.
h
0
h
1
h
2
h
3
h
4
h
5
h
6
h
7
A
h
0
A
h
1
A
h
2
A
h
3
A
h
4
A
h
5
A
h
6
h
8
A
h
7
( )
% 100 x
TSS
TSS TSS
R %
0
t , 1 h 0
t , 1
A
A
=
( )
% 100 x
TSS
TSS TSS
R %
0
t , 2 h 0
t , 2
A
A
=
Flocculant Analysis
The removal at that point during time At is
then:
The removal at height h
2
is
The average removal from h
1
to h
2
is then:
( )
2
R % R %
R %
t , 2 t , 1
t , 1 h
A A
A A
+
=
( )
2
R % R %
x
h
h
R % x
h
h
R %
t , 2 t , 1
T
1
t , 1 h
T
1
t , 1 h
A A
A A A A
+
A
=
A
=
Flocculant Analysis
The contribution this element has to the
overall removal at time At is the removal
multiplied by the fraction of the total height it
represents, or, where h
T
is the total basin
height
Flocculant Settling
The total removal at any time At is the
sum of the removals at each height
segment, or,
( )
=
A + A
A
+
A
=
n
i
t i t i
T
i
t
R R
h
h
R
0
, 1 ,
2
% %
%
Typical Removal Curves
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0 30 60 90 120
Settling Time, min
H
e
i
g
h
t
,
m
70%
90%
60%
50%
40%
80%
Primary Sed. Design Information
Min Max Typ.
Detention time at
average flow, hr
1.5 2.5 2.0
Overflow rate at
average flow,
Gal/ft
2
day
800 1200 1000
Overflow rate at
peak flow, Gal/ft
2

day
1000 3000 2500
Weir loading,
Gal/ftday
10,000 40,000 25,000
Typical Circular Primary Basin Sizes
Range Typical
Depth, ft 10 to 15 12 to 13
Diameter, ft. 10 to 300+ 40 to 100
Bottom slope,
in/ft.
.75 to 2 1
Scraper tip
speed, ft/min
6 to 12
Example: Analysis of Flocculant Settling Data
Design a primary settling system for a wastewater
plant with an average flow of 3.2 MGD and a peak flow
of 9 MGD.
Use two identical circular primary clarifiers, each to
receive onehalf of the flow. The basins should remove
at least 65% of the solids at average flow.
Specify the depth and diameter. Check the weir
loading. The data below was obtained from a settling
column similar to the one shown previously.
After the basins are sized, recalculate the actual
removal at both average and peak flows.
Settling Column Data
Suspended Solids Data (mg/L) at Indicated
Time (min) and Height
Station Ht.,
m
0, min 30, min 60, min 90, min 120, min
h
0
4 178 N/A N/A N/A N/A
h
1
3.5 198 95 62 40 33
h
2
3 190 120 85 60 42
h
3
2.5 192 125 102 71 54
h
4
2 192 128 110 85 66
h
5
1.5 188 137 120 95 76
h
6
1 194 144 128 102 79
h
7
0.5 201 149 130 109 87
h
8
0 196 154 132 110 91
Process Overview
Step1 : Estimate the removal at different
times and heights.
Step 2: Next construct the removal vs.
time graph.
Step 3: Estimate the detention time
required.
Step 4: Use the standard design criteria
to determine the area and depth.
Solution
The first step is to calculate an average
or initial TSS concentration, TSS
0
.
The next step is to use this TSS
0
value
to determine the TSS removal as a
percentage.
These calculations are ideally suited to
a spreadsheet analysis, although they
can be done equally well by hand given
the time.
L / TSS mg 192
n
TSS
TSS
n
1 i
i
0
= =
=
Sample Calculations
The average initial TSS concentration is:
Removal at 4 m,30 min
Since any particles in the water will
have a finite settling velocity, in theory,
they should settle below the top of the
basin at any finite time. Thus, the
removal at the top of the basin at any
finite time is 100 percent.
Suspended Solids Data (mg/L) at Indicated
Time (min) and Height
Station Ht.,
m
0, min 30, min 60, min 90, min 120, min
h
0
4 178 N/A N/A N/A N/A
h
1
3.5 198 95 62 40 33
h
2
3 190 120 85 60 42
h
3
2.5 192 125 102 71 54
h
4
2 192 128 110 85 66
h
5
1.5 188 137 120 95 76
h
6
1 194 144 128 102 79
h
7
0.5 201 149 130 109 87
h
8
0 196 154 132 110 91
( )
( )
% 5 . 37
% 100 x
L / mg 192
L / mg 120 L / mg 192
% 100 x
TSS
TSS TSS
R %
0
min 30 , m 3 0
min 30 , m 3
=
=
Removal at 3 m, 30 min
( )
( )
% 5 . 50
% 100 x
L / mg 192
L / mg 95 L / mg 192
% 100 x
TSS
TSS TSS
R %
0
min 90 , m 5 . 1 0
min 90 , m 5 . 1
=
=
Removal at 1.5 m, 90 min
Removal Summary
% Removal at Indicated Time (min) and Height
Station Column
Ht., m
0 30 60 90 120
h
0
4 7.5%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
h
1
3.5 2.9% 50.4% 67.5% 79.2% 82.9%
h
2
3 0.8% 37.5% 55.8% 68.8% 77.9%
h
3
2.5 0.0% 35.0% 46.7% 62.9% 72.1%
h
4
2 0.0% 33.3% 42.5% 55.8% 65.8%
h
5
1.5 2.1% 28.8% 37.5% 50.5% 60.4%
h
6
1 0.8% 25.0% 33.3% 46.7% 58.8%
h
7
0.5 4.6% 22.5% 32.5% 43.3% 54.6%
h
8
0 2.1% 19.6% 31.3% 42.5% 52.5%
Average Removal = 0.0% 39.1% 49.7% 61.1% 69.4%
Removal Curve
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 30 60 90 120
Time, min
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
R
e
m
o
v
a
l
Estimating Detention Time
The previous graph indicates a detention
time of approximately 103 minutes.
Using a scale up factor of 1.25 the actual
detention time is:
hr 15 . 2 min 129
min 103 25 . 1
SF
actual
actual
column actual
= = u
= u
u = u
Basin Volume
The total basin volume required is then:
( )
3
3
6
ft 300 , 38 V
Gal 48 . 7
ft
hr 24
day
hr 15 . 2
day
Gal
10 2 . 3 V
Q V
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

=
u =
Since there will be two basins, the volume of each is 19,200 ft
3
.
Question
We now know the volume. How do we
determine the diameter (or surface
area) and the depth?
We use the standard overflow rates to
estimate an area at both average flow
and peak flow. We choose the larger
area. We can then calculate the
diameter and depth.
Basin Area
Initially assuming the maximum
overflow rate at both average and peak
flows:
Q = AV = A x OFR
2
avg
2
6
avg
ft 2670 A
day ft
Gal
1200
day
Gal
10 2 . 3
OFR
Q
A
=

.

\

= =
Min Max Typ.
Detention time at
average flow, hr
1.5 2.5 2.0
Overflow rate at
average flow,
Gal/ft
2
day
800 1200 1000
Overflow rate at
peak flow, Gal/ft
2

day
1000 3000 2500
Weir loading,
Gal/ftday
10,000 40,000 25,000
Basin Area
And, for the peak flow:
2
avg
2
6
peak
ft 3000 A
day ft
Gal
3000
day
Gal
10 9
OFR
Q
A
=

.

\

= =
Note, if the peaking factor is 2.5, the two areas will be equal.
Min Max Typ.
Detention time at
average flow, hr
1.5 2.5 2.0
Overflow rate at
average flow,
Gal/ft
2
day
800 1200 1000
Overflow rate at
peak flow, Gal/ft
2

day
1000 3000 2500
Weir loading,
Gal/ftday
10,000 40,000 25,000
Basin Diameter
The larger area is 3000 ft
2
, so we must
use it. Each basin will be onehalf the
total area, or 1500 ft
2
. This corresponds
to a diameter of:
ft 7 . 43 D
ft 9 . 21
ft 1500 A
r
r A
2
2
=
=
t
=
t
=
t =
One can round this to a standard diameter of 45 ft.
( )
2
2
2
ft 1590 A
ft 5 . 22 A
r A
=
t =
t =
Basin Diameter
A diameter of 45 ft. results in an actual
area of:
Basin Depth
We will now use the area and required
volume to calculate the minimum depth:
ft 07 . 12 d
ft 1590
ft 200 , 19
A
V
d
d A V
2
3
=
= =
=
One can round this to 13 ft. to maintain the required detention time.
Recheck of Parameters
Actual detention time at average flow
is:
( ) ( )
hrs 3 . 2
hr 24
day
Gal 48 . 7
ft
day
Gal
10 6 . 1
. ft 13 . ft 5 . 22
Q
d r
Q
V
3
6
2
2
= u

.

\



.

\


.

\

t
= u
t
= = u
Recheck of Parameters
Actual detention time at peak flow is:
( ) ( )
min 49 hrs 083 . 0
hr 24
day
Gal 48 . 7
ft
day
Gal
10 5 . 4
. ft 13 . ft 5 . 22
Q
d r
Q
V
3
6
2
2
= = u

.

\



.

\


.

\

t
= u
t
= = u
No established standard, but some consulting firms will not design below one hour at peak.
Recheck of Parameters
Actual overflow rate at average flow:
ft 1006 OFR
ft 1590
day
Gal
10 6 . 1
A
Q
OFR
2
6
=

.

\

= =
Min Max Typ.
Detention time at
average flow, hr
1.5 2.5 2.0
Overflow rate at
average flow,
Gal/ft
2
day
800 1200 1000
Overflow rate at
peak flow, Gal/ft
2

day
1000 3000 2500
Weir loading,
Gal/ftday
10,000 40,000 25,000
Average flow of 3.2 MGD
and a peak flow of 9 MGD
Recheck of Parameters
Actual overflow rate at peak flow:
ft 2830 OFR
ft 1590
day
Gal
10 5 . 4
A
Q
OFR
2
6
=

.

\

= =
Min Max Typ.
Detention time at
average flow, hr
1.5 2.5 2.0
Overflow rate at
average flow,
Gal/ft
2
day
800 1200 1000
Overflow rate at
peak flow, Gal/ft
2

day
1000 3000 2500
Weir loading,
Gal/ftday
10,000 40,000 25,000
Average flow of 3.2 MGD
and a peak flow of 9 MGD
Recheck of Parameters
Weir loading rate:
( )
day ft / Gal 800 , 31 WLF
. ft 45
d
Gal
10 5 . 4
WLF
D
Q
L
Q
WLF
6
p p
=
t
=
t
= =
Estimated Removal
To estimate the removal, first recall we
multiplied the required area/detention
time, by a scaleup factor of 1.25. To re
estimate the removal at average and
peak flows, we must remove the
safety factor.
min 110
25 . 1
min 138
min 40
25 . 1
min 49
25 . 1
avg , corrected
peak , corrected
design
corrected
= = u
= = u
u
= u
Removal Curve
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 30 60 90 120
Time, min
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
R
e
m
o
v
a
l
Estimated Removal
From the removal graph,
Flow Removal
Average flow 67%
Peak flow 44%
Summary
Parameter Values
Number of units
Diameter
Depth
2
45 ft
13 ft
Hindered and Compression Settling
Hindered settling occurs
when the number of particles is sufficiently high
that they settle as a structured mass.
Compression settling occurs
where particle numbers are so high that particles
above can only settle if lower particles are
further compressedthe lower particles actually
support upper particles.
Hindered and Compression Settling
Hindered and compression settling
occurs only in the lower regions of
sedimentation basins. It is rate
determining step
in most secondary sedimentation basins receiving
activated sludge
in gravity thickening used to concentrate waste
primary sludge and sometimes waste activated
sludge.
Hindered and Compression Settling
Hindered and compression settling are
normally analyzed together.
The two most common methods of
analyzing hindered and compression
settling are
the solids flux method and
the Talmadge and Fitch method
Column Settling
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 30 60
Time, min
S
e
t
t
l
i
n
g
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
m
Solids Flux Method
Flux is a mass crossing a boundary or
area.
The solids flux method used to analyze
sedimentation processes can be
developed
by studying the mass of solids passing an arbitrary
plane within a sedimentation basin.
Solids Flux
The mass of solids passing the arbitrary
plane increases with increasing inlet
solids concentration to some limiting
value and then decreases rapidly.
This decrease past some maximum inlet
solids concentration is caused by the
structure of the solids at the bottom of
the tank preventing the rapid settling of
the solids above.
Solids Flux
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
0 5 10 15
Concentration, g/L
S
o
l
i
d
s
F
l
u
x
,
K
g
/
m
2

h
r
@ low concentration low flux due to less solids
@ high concentration low flux due to extreme hindered settling
Solids Flux
This maximum point is termed the
limiting solids flux. Let us develop the
equations to describe this process, solve
the system, and determine that limiting
or maximum solids flux.
A
i
V
p C
i
Solids Flux
An arbitrary area, A
i
, with solids of
concentration C
i
, and velocity V
i
crossing the plane.
Solids Flux
The solids flux, G
i
, is the concentration
times the velocity, or
i p i
C V G =
G
i
= solids flux, mass/areatime
V
p
= particle velocity, length/time
C
i
= particle concentration, mass/volume or
mass/length
3
A
i
Q
u
Q
i
+Q
u
Q
i
Solids Flux
A
i
Q
u
Q
i
+Q
u
Q
i
Question
What is the fluid
velocity at the plane
A
i
?
i
u
f
f i u
A
Q
V
V A Q
=
=
u i t
G G G + =
u i i i t
V C V C G + =
Solids Flux
Note from fluid mechanics that
A
Q
V =
i
u
i
i
i
i t
A
Q
C
A
Q
C G + =
Then,
( )
L
i u i
i
G
C Q Q
A
+
=
Solids Flux
If we use the maximum or limiting
solids flux, G
L
, with the inlet solids
concentration, we obtain the following
Which is the minimum area required for
settling
Solids Flux
The solids have two velocity
components:
A gravity component due to the movement of solids
as they settle in the tank
A fluid component due to fluid being pumped out the
bottom of the tank (bulk fluid movement)
Solids Flux vs Concentration
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
0 5 10 15
S
o
l
i
d
s
F
l
u
x
,
K
g
/
m
2

h
r
Concentration, g/L
Gravity flux solids transport by gravity
Pumped flux
Underflow withdrawal
Increases the downward
movement of solids
Total flux
Limiting flux
Solids transmitting capacity of each layer varies with the concentration of the layer
Overall or total flux has a minimum & maximum
Minimum point determines the design area of the clarifier
Minimum solids handling capacity of the suspension is the limiting flux
Solids Flux
Recall that a scale up factor of 25% to
50% is applied to the area based on
column settling data. Or, the area is
multiplied by 1.25 to 1.50. See page 228
of M&E, 3rd. Edition.
Example: Solids Flux
An activated sludge wastewater treatment
plant currently has an average flow of 2.5 MGD.
The aeration basin reactor solids concentration
is 2500 mg/L and the desired underflow
concentration is 13,000 mg/L. You may assume
that the recycle flow will never exceed 50% of
the plant flow.
Determine the total secondary settling basin
area required and the diameter if two identical
basins are utilized.
Example: Solids Flux
Lets convert the flow to metric;
hr
m
394 Q
hr 24
d
L 10
m
Gal
L 78 . 3
d
Gal
10 5 . 2 Q
3
i
3
3
6
i
=

.

\



.

\


.

\

=
The recycle flow is half this, or;
hr
m
197 Q
3
u
=
Example: Solids Flux
From the solids flux graph in the
spreadsheet the limiting solids flux is
4.9 Kg/m
2
hr. The required area is then:
( )
hr m
Kg
9 . 4
g 10
Kg
m
g
2500
hr
m
197
hr
m
394
A
G
C Q Q
A
2
3 3
3 3
i
L
i u i
i


.

\


.

\



.

\

+
=
+
=
Example: Solids Flux
The minimum required area is then;
2 2
i
ft 3240 m 301 A = =
A scale up factor of 1.25 to 1.50 (25%
to 50%) is usually used for the area
determined by column settling studies.
Thus,
2 2
i
ft 4375 ft 3240 35 . 1 A = =
Example: Solids Flux
This yields a surface overflow rate of;
day ft
Gal
571 Rate F / O V
ft 4375
d
Gal
10 5 . 2
A
Q
V
2
2
6
i
i
= =
= =
Which is within the acceptable range of 400 to
800 Gal/ft
2
day.
Note that overflow rates are based on plant
flow excluding recycle.
Example: Solids Flux
To calculate the area:
ft 8 . 52 D
ft 4 . 26
ft 2190
r
r ft 2190
2
ft 4375
A
2
2 2
2
b
=
=
t
=
t = = =
Question
What size units would be selected?
Round up to the next available size.
Some manufacturers only provide specific sizes,
typically in 5 ft. increments.
Others, may provide any requested size in 1 ft.
increments.
Assuming 5 ft. increments, the actual diameter would
then be 55 ft. So, two units, 55 ft. in diameter are
required.