Compiled on 29th Jan, 2013

Private & Confidential

Decoding cities

Cities as brand
• Each city is known for what the stand for ( the bigger service or solution they provide ), which acts as a magnet to the migrants moving to the city. Eg: industrial city, health city, education city , cultural city. Brand value • The magnets are supported by sub/ complementing magnets. Brand extensions • There is a complex system of services ( transport, waste management, food supplies, energy, water …) , regulations, networks and policies that control the way a city functions. Operations • It has a certain character in terms of its look and feel through its , architectural style, public element , scale , character of open spaces , urban art. This makes the urban fabric of the city . The tone of voice / branding

They are also responsible for defining the look and feel of the city. The define the urban fabric. . where they abiding by the laws and regulations defined by the master plan and building bylaws creates a product for his client’s needs. policies based on expected patters of growth . They create the master plan.Protagonists • The urban planner : defines the systems. • Urban designer : responsible for the tone of voice and behavior of the user. economically ). and plans the way in which city needs to function and grow ( socially . They are architects in bigger scale ( big architectural projects often become urban interventions). laws. They lay down the rules. • The architect : has the area of influence limited to his plot.

chowks. . • Nodes – are the epicenters ( centre of attraction) around which the developments flourishes theses are generally large architectural projects. educational .The key element of planning pattern • Zones – districts / sectors a larger area demarcated for a certain type of function. each zone has its own set of essentials amenities and rules. residential . ( industrial . religious establishments … • Axis – the main transport artery (generally the main roads) which connects the nodes and could celebrate the end nodes with creation of sub nodes that could be done by plazas. open spaces. sculptures . defense. administrative …). gate ways … • Network – the spokes of roads emerging out of main axis . the transport network that functionally links the nodes and cities. promenades. markets. fountains .

History of urban planning .

first example of drainage system and regularization to even the size of the brick to be used . fortified citadel at an higher plinth with granaries and great bath. . major north south axis .The Indus valley The earliest examples of extensive planning is seen with the city at two levels . Network of perpendicular roads .

The wide central area. which was kept unsettled according to his macro-scale urban prediction/estimation and in time evolved to the “agora”.The Greeks The Greek Hippodamus (c. Alexander commissioned him to lay out his new city of Alexandria. . the grandest example of idealized urban planning. straight streets. 407 BC) has been dubbed the "Father of City Planning" for his design of Miletus. the center of both the city and the society. cutting one another at right angles. the city had broad.

the main axis led to the citadel and had market /Agoras around it .The Romans The Romans had the two major cardinal axis . the Roman equivalent of a modern city block. which took on a star-shaped layout designed to resist cannon fire. . communal or spiritual power. Florence was an early model of the new urban planning. the settlements where divided in grids and Each square marked by four roads was called an insula. Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military.

containing proportionate areas of residences. industry and agriculture. . Garden cities were intended to be planned.Industrialization and Garden city Sir Ebenezer Howard ’s garden city model .the Utopian ideology inspired by the need to keep balance between the town/ country and the city. self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts" (parks).

400 ha). planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces. another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 50.000 people on a site of 6. public parks and six radial boulevards. extending from the centre. .000 acres (2. But many world cities including New Delhi uses the same principal . The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population.000 people.Garden city A garden city was envisioned to house 32. linked by road and rail. 120 ft (37 m) wide. Letchworth and Welwyn near London remains as the only direct example of garden cities.

functionality was the prime concern of planners at that time . and the small scale. congestion.War and modernism The modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder. . replacing them with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. or Brasilia. Other example where Tel Aviv by Sir Patrick Geddes. Eg : Plan Voisin (based on LeCorbusier's Ville Contemporaine) which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. The automobile friendliness.

Politics and power Quite often the city . and especially the citadel / administrative capital can be planned and designed to highlight the might and grandeur of the government / monarch . This is more a urban design intervention than planning . Rastrapati bhavan and Brasilia Hitler’s plan for Berlin .

sense. perceived boundaries such as walls. trails. buildings. He proposes 5 ways to 'judge' the performance of a city . focal points. and shorelines. forming mental maps with five elements: • paths. and other channels in which people travel. readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points. • districts. relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character. In The Image of the City Lynch reported that users understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways. control and access. efficiency and justice.Imageability and legibility of a city Kevin Lynch worked on perception and cognition of city form. the streets. intersections or loci. • edges. fit. • landmarks. sidewalks.Vitality. • nodes. .

rather than superficial beautification. self regulating organisms. • Developing a city worthy of civic pride. not an imitation of European cities. • Promoting trade and commerce. • Purchasing land suitable for building. health and comfort of all residents. • Conformity to an orderly development plan carried out in stages. . • Preserving historic buildings and buildings of religious significance. He said cities are self repairing. engaging in "constructive and conservative surgery. Do not need grand plans and organization. Highlights of his principles for town planning in Bombay (1915): • Preservation of human life and energy. rather than focusing on roads and parks available only to the rich. • Control over future growth with adequate provision for future requirements. • Promoting the happiness.Human centric city Patrick Geddes sought to consider "primary human needs" in every intervention.

that intangible thing that holds cities together.Human centric city Christopher Alexander . makes a space a place). Such patterns have lost their meaning in a modern city. He believed each city has a pattern which develops over a period of time . He claims. advocates piecemeal growth.city is formed through sustained human contact. complex structure (not a tree) and patterns of growth. Constructive participation between various stakeholders and not only by professionals. sense of place. coherence (like a medieval city) and mixing of functions. sizes and a deep sense of feeling (GENIUS LOCI. .

Principles of Intelligent Urbanism Proposed by Christopher Charles Benninger it lays the ten principals of intelligent urbanism as : • a balance with nature • a balance with tradition • appropriate technology • conviviality – A place for the individual . friendship. the neighborhood. the city domain • efficiency • human scale • opportunity matrix • regional integration • balanced movement • institutional integrity . householders. communities.

Cases of new urbanism models .

1%. higher than the national average of 4. with an innovative urban planning that changed the population size from some hundreds of thousands to more than a million people. . Brazil • 1950s.856.2%. and per capita income is 66% higher than the Brazilian average. commerce and services. The city's 30-year economic growth rate is 7. The city is the second largest car manufacturer in the country. and its economy is based on industry. and in 2010 was awarded the Globe Sustainable City • A role model in dealing with such sensitive issues as transportation and the environment.Curitiba. Curitiba presents one of the highest HDI of Brazil at 0.

Curitiba .sustainable systems • • Curitiba's infrastructure makes bus travel fast and convenient. At the Open University. education and day care networks. It incentivizes citizens for good behavior ( cleanliness and waste management ) and gives coupons for use in public amenities. Citizenship Streets. each received a pair of trees and an hour's consultation with an architect to help them develop their plan. neighborhood libraries shared by schools and citizens. sports and cultural facilities near mass transportation terminals. effectively creating demand for bus use as opposed to private motor vehicles. in public housing while landowners built the houses themselves. residents can take courses in subjects such as mechanics. where buildings provide essential public services. • • • • . hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Curitiba has municipal health.

photovoltaic farms. • Public transportation link just 200 meters from any point . and plantations. research fields. Abu Dhabi ( Foster + partners) Ras Al Khaimah Eco City. creating a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere. Ras Al Khaimah Eco City + Rem Koolhaas/ OMA . Rem Koolhaas/ OMA • Zero-carbon . • City linked to Abu Dhabi’s principal transport infrastructure and airport • Incorporation of wind. to make it self sustainable in energy and food.City as a sustainable biome Masdar.car free cities . • Shaded walkways and narrow streets.

urban planning in India .

an ancient Indian treatise on architecture .Jaipur In India . Jaipur was one of the first examples of a early town planning exercise. Jaipur is 3x3. Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh with the help Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya design it based on Hindu systems of town planning and followed the principles prescribed in the Shilpa-shastra. Based on nav grahas.according to this shastra the site should be divided into grids or mandalas range from 2x 2 to 10 x 10. The city till date follows strict norms on elevation control to remain the pink city of India. .

. planning suburbia . lots of built ( as opposed to the garden cities of the early 90) catering to the housing needs of people dislodged by war/ separation.Chandighar The other post independence classic example of a planned city was that of Le corbusier’s Chandighar . It is classic example of govt led town planning . Designed in grids with strict system of road network called the seven v’s the city was inspired by the human form where the capital city was the head . creating grids of sectors . and the commercial centre of sector 16 at its heart. the industrial suburbs was the hands and legs .

India gate and CP as the zone for governance and extending it the old city through a straight axis from CP . • The nodes are connected by axis and each of the axis is celebrated . Creating the core triangle between Rastrapati bhavan .New Delhi The design of the capital complex of New Delhi by Edvin Lutyens follows the similar principal as that of the garden city model.

Rajasthan Sricity. Chhattisgarh Bhubaneswar. Uttar Pradesh Gurgaon. Rajasthan Cooch Behar. Assam Durgapur. Gujarat Greater Noida. Puducherry Rourkela. Chhattisgarh New Kanpur City. Jharkhand Dispur. Haryana Indore. Tamil Nadu Mohali. West Bengal . Odisha Sri Ganganagar. Uttar Pradesh Noida. Andhra Pradesh Udaipur. West Bengal Gandhinagar. Punjab Navi Mumbai (New Mumbai) Naya Raipur. Odisha Bokaro. Jharkhand Kalyani. Tamil Nadu Bhilai. Haryana Pondicherry. West Bengal Lavasa. Uttar Pradesh Panchkula. Madhya Pradesh Jamshedpur.Other planned cities in India are : Auroville. Maharashtra Madurai.

Future design of the cities .

NEEDS TO HAVE AN IDENTITY • Going forward cities should be designed as a brand ( hi tech city – Bangaluru .Business city . through the designs of its land mark structures. . • The brand consistency and ethos should be reflected in its urban fabric . academic city…) based on the core industry it aims to provide its people employment with. Industrial city. support services. • All supporting industries can be planned as sub cities adapting the garden city model. public places . public furniture.

IT SHOULD ECO . • It should be planned as a sustainable eco system through equal partnership of the residents and governance. A system and infrastructure that enables. A system where the resources consumed should be replaced through the replenishing natural cycles of the seasons. educates and incentivizes eco friendly behavior and sustainable practices ( in transportation. soil erosion. energy consumption) • It should be planned to be self-reliant in energy and water needed to sustain the development. The principle promotes environmental assessments and conservation through design.going beyond deforestation. aquifer depletion. resource use and reuse. conservation of flora and fauna and siltation. waste management. creating environmental equilibrium.SUSTAINABLE: • It should one with nature . . promotes .

crafts. Its is important to fully understand the reasons and the significance of the same . infrastructural systems and project management which are consistent with local contexts. construction materials. Planning decisions must operate within the balance of tradition. celebrations. (People's capacities. techniques which respond to the climatic and social requirement.IT respects region. geo-climatic conditions. forms. • The use of appropriate technology . construction techniques. local materials and resources . locally available resources. aggressively protecting. tradition and heritage and build on its values : • The existing urban fabric of the place is defined by its traditions . rituals . before any intervention. and suitable capital investments). promoting and conserving generic components and elements of the urban pattern. .

devised for personal solace. congregation and celebration.IT promotes social and personal well being : • It has places for social interaction. The space can be of a certain hierarchy. "passages" or gallerias. domesticity. stadia. socially engaging and offer their members numerous opportunities for gathering and meeting one another. romance. . promenades. "neighborliness. companionship. It should be interactive. It should be reflected in planning the hierarchy of places. a space for each of social tiers. where they have physical place in the settlement structure. transport hubs. spaces where everyone can go. Leading up to plazas." community and civic life . parks. .

In a cost efficient manner . productivity. with planned achievements in comfort. productivity and hygiene. safety. access. access and civic viability. security. while increasing affordability. roads.IT should be time and cost efficient : • Efficiency that promotes a balance between the consumption of resources such as energy. facilities. time and fiscal resources. . services and infrastructural networks. It encourages optimum sharing of public land. tenure. reducing per household costs.

the future cities should be planned around free pedestrian movement and their interactions with different spaces while they walk . Design for human scale looks into the details of physiological and anthropometrical use and interaction people with various objects. adjuncts and places.IT should have a human scale to it : • Unlike the cities of the yester years that where planned only around automobiles and mass transit system. It could look at decentralizing the amenities to the closest pockets of transit ( which naturally happen any ways ) .

discover aspects of their personalities. It should be designed so people get inspired. through access to a range of organizations. education. build a drive to achieve. skills and intellectual curiosity which they use to craft their identity. and recreation. health care. economic engagement.IT should be the centre for opportunity : • The city as a vehicle for personal. . institutions. social. Providing a variety of opportunities for enhanced employment. mental and economic development. safety and hygiene. services. facilities and information. for better human resources development. It should increase access to shelter. It should promote the freedom of expression .

Namaste! Feedback and suggestions. A Future Ideas “KARO” presentation .