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CHAPTER 2:

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)


CIRCUITS

(THE BASIC LAWS)

Chapter 2 1
LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Student should be able to explain Ohm’s Law and


calculate current, voltage and resistance in a circuit.
2. Student should be able to state the purpose of
resistor, capacitor and inductor.
3. Student should be able to identify a series circuit and
apply Kirchhoff’s voltage law and voltage divider to
calculate voltage across an element.
4. Student should be able to identify a parallel circuit and
apply Kirchhoff’s current law and current divider to
calculate current through an element.
5. Student should be able to differentiate between
resistors in series or in parallel and then determine
the total resistance.

Chapter 2 2
1.0 DC SOURCE

• dc – a constant flow of electric charge with time.

• For ideal voltage source and ideal current source,


they supply fixed voltage and fixed current
respectively.

Chapter 2 3
DC SOURCE contd.

• V can be positive/negative.

Chapter 2 4
DC SOURCE contd.
• Voltage sources can be connected in series
where the value is added.

• But can not connected in parallel.

Chapter 2 5
DC SOURCE contd.

• Technically allowed if v1 = v2, but is a bad


idea.
• Could easily cause component failure (smoke).

Chapter 2 6
DC SOURCE contd.
• Note the sign of current can be positive
/negative.

- - + +

+ + - -

Chapter 2 7
DC SOURCE contd.
• Current sources cannot be connected
in series.

• Recall: the current entering a circuit element


must equal the current leaving a circuit
element, Iin = Iout.
• Could easily cause component failure (smoke).

Chapter 2 8
DC SOURCE contd.
• Technically allowed if I1 = I2, but is a bad
idea.

• However it is allowed if the sources is


connected in parallel.

Chapter 2 9
2.0 OHM’S LAW

• Most material have a characteristic behavior


of resisting the flow of electric charge.

• The physical property to resist current known


as resistance.

• It is represented by symbol R.

Chapter 2 10
OHM’S LAW contd.

• Conductor (e.g. wires) have very low


resistance (< 0.1 Ω) that can usually be
ignored.

• It is assumed that wires have zero resistance.

• Insulators (e.g. air) have very large resistance


(> 50M Ω).

Chapter 2 11
OHM’S LAW contd.

• Resistor is the simplest passive element.


Chapter 2 12
OHM’S LAW contd.

• Georg Simon Ohm (1787 – 1854) found the


relationship between current and voltage for a
resistor. This relationship known as Ohm’s law.

• Ohm’s law – the voltage v across a resistor is directly


proportional to the current i flowing through the
resistor.

v i
 v  mi

Chapter 2 13
OHM’S LAW contd.

• The slope m, is equal to the resistance, R of


an element.

• Only linear resistor obey the Ohm’s law.


Nonlinear does not.

• Normally, resistor is assumed to be linear.

Chapter 2 14
OHM’S LAW contd.
• Thus the equation becomes:

v  iR
which is the mathematical form of Ohm’s law.

• R is measured in the unit of ohms, designated


Ω.

Chapter 2 15
OHM’S LAW contd.
• An element with R = 0 – short circuit.

v  iR  0

• In short circuit, the voltage is always zero


but the current is not.

Chapter 2 16
OHM’S LAW contd.
• An element with R = – open circuit.

i0

• In open circuit, the current is always zero but


the voltage is not.

Chapter 2 17
OHM’S LAW contd.
• Another quantity in circuit analysis – conductance,
denoted by G.
1 i
G 
R v

• Conductance is a measure of how well an element will


conduct electric current.

• Inverse of resistance.

• The unit of conductance – mho, or siemens, S


Ω

Ω
• 1S = 1 = 1 A/V
Chapter 2 18
OHM’S LAW contd.
• Conductance – the ability of an element to
conduct electric current.

• The same resistance can be expressed in ohm


or siemens. Example: 10 Ω = 0.1 S

• The power dissipate by the resistor can


expressed in term of R:
2
v
p  vi  i 2 R 
R

Chapter 2 19
OHM’S LAW contd.
• Or can also be expresses in term of G:
2
i
p  vi  v G 
2

• Note: The power dissipated in a resistor is always


positive.

• Thus resistors always absorbed power from the


circuit.

• This shows that the resistor is a passive element.

Chapter 2 20
3.0 RESISTOR

• The resistor is far and away the simplest circuit


element.

• In a resistor, the voltage v is proportional to the


current i, with the constant of proportionality R
known as the resistance.
v  i
 v  iR
v
or R 
i

Chapter 2 21
RESISTOR contd.

Chapter 2 22
RESISTOR contd.

• The above resistance is 1,000,000 Ω or


1MΩ.
• The 10% means the actual resistance is
between 1.1M Ω and 900kΩ.
Chapter 2 23
RESISTOR contd.

• The above resistance is 150,000 Ω or 150kΩ.


• The 5% means the actual resistance is between
157.5kΩ and 142.5kΩ.

Chapter 2 24
RESISTOR contd.

• The above resistance is 3,300 Ω or 3.3kΩ.


• The 5% means the actual resistance is
between 3,465Ω and 3,135Ω.

Chapter 2 25
RESISTOR contd.

• The above resistance is 1000 Ω or 1kΩ.


• The 5% means the actual resistance is between
1050Ω and 950Ω.

Chapter 2 26
EXAMPLE

3) An electric iron draws 2A at 120V. Find its


resistance.
v 120
R   60
i 2

7) The essential of a toaster is an electrical element


(a resistor) that converts electrical energy to heat
energy. How much current is drawn by a toaster
with resistance 12Ω at 240V?

v 240
i    20 A
R 12
Chapter 2 27
• In the given circuit, calculate the current i, the
conductance G and the power p.

Chapter 2 28
Solution:
The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source
voltage (30V) because the resistor and the voltage source are
connected to the same pair of terminals. Hence the current is

v 30
i    6mA
R 5k
The conductance is
1 1
G   0.2mS
R 5k

The power can be calculated in various ways

p  vi  30(6m )  180mW

Chapter 2 29
or
p  i 2R  (6m )2 (5k )  180mW

or
p  v 2G  302 (0.2m )  180mW

or
v 2 302
p   180mW
R 5k

Chapter 2 30
• For the given circuit, calculate the voltage v, the
conductance G and the power p.

Answer:
20V, 100µS, 40mW

Chapter 2 31
4.0 CAPACITOR

• Unlike resistor which dissipate energy, capacitor store


energy, which can be retrieved at later time.

• Also called storage elements. The energy is stored in its


electric field.

• It is a passive elements.

Chapter 2 32
CAPACITOR contd.
• Capacitor acts as a storage element:
There is a capacitor in parallel with the
resistor and light bulb. The way the capacitor
functions is by acting as a very low resistance
load when the circuit is initially turned on.

This is illustrated below:

Initially, the capacitor has a very low


resistance, almost 0. Since electricity
takes the path of least resistance, almost
all the electricity flows through the
capacitor, not the resistor, as the
resistor has considerably higher
Chapter 2
resistance. 33
CAPACITOR contd.

As a capacitor charges, its resistance


increases as it gains more and more
charge. As the resistance of the
capacitor climbs, electricity begins to
flow not only to the capacitor, but
through the resistor as well.

Once the capacitor's voltage equals that of the


battery, meaning it is fully charged, it will not
allow any current to pass through it. As a
capacitor charges its resistance increases and
becomes effectively infinite (open connection)
and all the electricity flows through the resistor.

Chapter 2 34
CAPACITOR contd.

Once the voltage source is disconnected, however,


the capacitor acts as a voltage source itself

As time goes on, the capacitor's charge begins to


drop, and so does its voltage. This means less
current flowing through the resistor

Chapter 2 35
CAPACITOR contd.

Once the capacitor is fully discharged, no current


will flow.

• The unit to measure the capacitance of a capacitor is farad


(F).

Chapter 2 36
CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2 37
5.0 INDUCTOR

• It is a passive element designed to store


energy in its magnetic field.

• Inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

Chapter 2 38
INDUCTOR contd.
• Inductance is measured in henrys (H).

• Example:
– What you see here is a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire
around a piece of iron (yellow) and a switch. The coil of
wire is an inductor.

Chapter 2 39
INDUCTOR contd.
– Without the inductor in this circuit, what you
would have is a normal flashlight. You close the
switch and the bulb lights up.

– If there is an inductor, when the switch is closed


the bulb burns brightly and then gets dimmer.
When the switch is opened, the bulb burns very
brightly and then quickly goes out.

– The reason for this strange behavior is the


inductor. When current first starts flowing in
the coil, the coil wants to build up a magnetic
field.

Chapter 2 40
INDUCTOR contd.
– While the field is building, the coil inhibits the
flow of current. Once the field is built, current
can flow normally through the wire (coil).

– A large amount of current will flow through this


coil let only a small amount of current flow to the
light bulb. This is why the bulb gets dimmer.

– When the switch gets opened, the magnetic field


around the coil keeps current flowing in the coil
until the field collapses. This current keeps the
bulb lit for a period of time even though the
switch is open. In other words, an inductor can
store energy in its magnetic field, and an
inductor tends to resist any change in the
amount of current flowing through it.
Chapter 2 41
INDUCTOR contd.

Chapter 2 42
6.0 KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

• The foundation of circuit analysis is:


– The defining equations for circuit elements
(e.g. ohm’s law)
– Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL)
– Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL)

• The defining equations tell how the voltage and


current within a circuit element are related.

• Kirchhoff’s laws tell us how the voltages and


currents in different branches are related.

Chapter 2 43
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.
• Kirchhoff’s first law is based on the law of
conservation of charge, which required that the
algebraic sum of charges within a system cannot
change.

• Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) – that the algebraic


sum of currents entering a node (or a closed
boundary) is zero.
N

i
n 1
n 0 N = number of branches connected to a node.

Chapter 2 44
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.
• Recall: Law of conservation of charge – charge can neither be
created or destroyed, only transferred. Thus the algebraic sum
of the electric charge in a system does not change.

• The sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the


currents leaving a node.

• Common sense:
– All of the electrons have to go somewhere.
– The current that goes in, has to come out some place.

• Example: Applying KCL:


4 + i = 5 + 11
thus, i = 12A

Chapter 2 45
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.
• Consider the following figure where all the current
can be combined as in figure (b).

Chapter 2 46
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.
• Kirchhoff’s second law is based on the principle of
conservation energy.

• Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) – the algebraic sum of


all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.
M

v
m 1
m 0 M = number of voltages on the loop.

1. Start at any branch and go around


the loop either clockwise /
counterclockwise.
2. Check which terminal the loop
encounter first,
• If positive terminal then +v.
• If negative terminal then –v.

Chapter 2 47
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.
• Thus, KVL yields
v1  v 2  v 3  v 4  v 5  0

rearranging terms gives


v 2  v 3  v 5  v1  v 4

• When voltage source are connected in series, KVL can


be applied to obtained the total voltage.

• The combined voltage is the algebraic sum of the


voltages of the individual sources.

Chapter 2 48
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

Chapter 2 49
KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.
• Much of the circuit analysis will be based on these three laws.
Ohm’s Law : v   iR
KCL :  in  0
KVL :
v 0
m

• These laws alone are sufficient to analyze many circuits.

• Important notes:
– If current enter at positive terminal
• v = +iR
• p = +vi

– If current enter at negative terminal


• v = -(iR)
• p = -(vi)

Chapter 2 50
EXAMPLE

1) Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Chapter 2 51
Apply Ohm’s law & KVL. Assume the current i
flow through the loop as shown below.

From Ohm’s law,


v1 = 2i, v2 = -3i (a)

Applying KVL around the loop gives


-20 + v1 – v2 = 0 (b)
Chapter 2 52
Substituting equation a into b
-20 + 2i – (-3i) = 0

Thus, i = 4A

Substituting i into equations a gives


v1 = 8V & v2 = -12V

Chapter 2 53
EXAMPLE

• Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Ans: 12V & -6V


Chapter 2 54
EXAMPLE

• Find voltages vx and v0 for the given circuit.

Ans: 10V & -5V


Chapter 2 55
EXAMPLE

3) Find current and voltages for the given circuit.

Ans: i1 = 3A, i2 = 2A, i3 = 1A, v1 = 24V,


Chapter 2 v2 = 6V, v3 = 6V 56
7.0 SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE
DIVIDER

• Recall: The current that pass through the series


resistors has the same value.

Thus,
i1 = i2 = i3

Chapter 2 57
SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

• Consider the following figure:

• Applying Ohm’s law to each of the resistors,


v1 = iR1 , v2 = iR2 (2.1)
Chapter 2 58
SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

• KVL (clockwise):
v1 + v2 – v = 0 (2.2)

• Combining both the above equation,


v = v1+ v2 = i(R1 + R2)
v
or i
R1  R2
(2.3)

• Can be written as
v = iReq

Chapter 2 Req = R1 + R2
where 59
SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

• Any number of resistors connected in series is


the sum of the individual resistances.
N
Re q  R1  R2  ...  RN   Rn
n 1

N = number of resistors in series


Chapter 2 60
SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

• To determine the voltage across each resistor,


substitute eq 2.3 into 2.1

R1 R2
v1  v v2  v
R1  R2 R1  R2

• The above equation is called the principle of voltage


division.

• The source voltage v is divided among the resistors in


direct proportion to their resistances; the larger the
resistance, the larger the voltage drop.

Chapter 2 61
8.0 PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT
DIVIDER

• Note that elements in parallel have the same voltage


drops across them.

Chapter 2 62
PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

• Consider the following figure:

• Applying Ohm’s law to each of the resistors,


v = i1R1 , v = i2R2
Chapter 2 63
PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

or
v v
i1  i2  (2.4)
R1 R2

• Applying KCL at node a gives the total current i as


i = i1 + i 2 (2.5)

• Substituting eq 2.4 into 2.5, yields

(2.6)
v v  1 1   1 
i  v    v  
R1 R2  R1 R2   Req 

Chapter 2 64
PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.
where

1 1 1
 
Req R1 R2
R1R2
 Req 
R1  R2

(eq 2.7)
• The above eq 2.7 only apply for two resistor
in parallel.

Chapter 2 65
PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

• For N resistors in parallel

1 1 1 1
   ... 
Req R1 R2 RN

• From eq 2.6 and 2.7,


iR1R2
v  iReq  (2.8)
R1  R2
• Substituting eq 2.8 into 2.4 gives,
iR2 iR1
i1  i2 
R1  R2 R1  R2 (2.9)
Chapter 2 66
PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

• Equation 2.9 is known as the principle of current


division.

• Notice that larger current flows through smaller


resistance.

• Eq 2.7 can be written in term of conductance


Geq  G1  G2  ...  GN

where G = 1/R

Chapter 2 67
PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

• Note: In electrical circuit, current will always flow


through a path with least resistance.

• If there is a short circuit, the entire current will


flow through the short circuit.

Chapter 2 68
EXAMPLE

1) Find Req for the above figure.

Answer: Req =
14.4Ω
Chapter 2 69
2) Find Req for the above figure.

Answer: Req = 11.2Ω

Chapter 2 70
• Find Rab for the above figure.

Answer: Rab = 11Ω

Chapter 2 71
• Find Rab and current i for the above figure.

Answer: Rab = 9.632Ω & i = 12.458A

Chapter 2 72
9.0 WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS

• Some resistors are combined neither in series


nor parallel. For example,

Chapter 2 73
WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

• These type of connection can be simplified by using


three-terminal equivalent network.

Chapter 2 74
WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

• The wye (Y) / tee (T) network and the delta


(Δ) / pi (π).

• The wye network can be converted into the


delta network and vice versa.

• This conversion will simplify the circuit


analysis.

• Note: This conversion did not take anything


out of the circuit or put in anything new.
Chapter 2 75
WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.
• Delta-Wye conversion:

Rb Rc
R1 
Ra  Rb  Rc

Ra Rc
R2 
Ra  Rb  Rc

Ra Rb
R3 
Ra  Rb  Rc

Chapter 2 76
WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.
• Wye-Delta conversion:

R1R2  R2R3  R3R1


Ra 
R1

R1R2  R2R3  R3R1


Rb 
R2

R1R2  R2R3  R3R1


Rc 
R3

Chapter 2 77
EXAMPLE

1) Convert the delta network to wye network

Chapter 2 78
Rb Rc 10(25) 250
R1     5
Ra  Rb  Rc 15  10  25 50

Ra Rc 25(15) 375
R2     7.5
Ra  Rb  Rc 15  10  25 50

Ra Rb 15(10) 150
R3     3
Ra  Rb  Rc 15  10  25 50

Chapter 2 79
Converted delta to wye network:

Chapter 2 80
2) Convert the wye network to delta network

Answer: Ra = 140Ω ; Rb = 70Ω ; Rc = 35Ω

Chapter 2 81
3) Obtain the equivalent resistance Rab for the circuit
below.

Chapter 2 82
Answer: Rab = 9.632Ω & i = 12.458A

Chapter 2 83