notes for principal of electric and electronic

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notes for principal of electric and electronic

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 83

CIRCUITS

Chapter 2 1

LEARNING OUTCOMES

calculate current, voltage and resistance in a circuit.

2. Student should be able to state the purpose of

resistor, capacitor and inductor.

3. Student should be able to identify a series circuit and

apply Kirchhoff’s voltage law and voltage divider to

calculate voltage across an element.

4. Student should be able to identify a parallel circuit and

apply Kirchhoff’s current law and current divider to

calculate current through an element.

5. Student should be able to differentiate between

resistors in series or in parallel and then determine

the total resistance.

Chapter 2 2

1.0 DC SOURCE

they supply fixed voltage and fixed current

respectively.

Chapter 2 3

DC SOURCE contd.

• V can be positive/negative.

Chapter 2 4

DC SOURCE contd.

• Voltage sources can be connected in series

where the value is added.

Chapter 2 5

DC SOURCE contd.

idea.

• Could easily cause component failure (smoke).

Chapter 2 6

DC SOURCE contd.

• Note the sign of current can be positive

/negative.

- - + +

+ + - -

Chapter 2 7

DC SOURCE contd.

• Current sources cannot be connected

in series.

must equal the current leaving a circuit

element, Iin = Iout.

• Could easily cause component failure (smoke).

Chapter 2 8

DC SOURCE contd.

• Technically allowed if I1 = I2, but is a bad

idea.

connected in parallel.

Chapter 2 9

2.0 OHM’S LAW

of resisting the flow of electric charge.

as resistance.

• It is represented by symbol R.

Chapter 2 10

OHM’S LAW contd.

resistance (< 0.1 Ω) that can usually be

ignored.

(> 50M Ω).

Chapter 2 11

OHM’S LAW contd.

Chapter 2 12

OHM’S LAW contd.

relationship between current and voltage for a

resistor. This relationship known as Ohm’s law.

proportional to the current i flowing through the

resistor.

v i

v mi

Chapter 2 13

OHM’S LAW contd.

an element.

Nonlinear does not.

Chapter 2 14

OHM’S LAW contd.

• Thus the equation becomes:

v iR

which is the mathematical form of Ohm’s law.

Ω.

Chapter 2 15

OHM’S LAW contd.

• An element with R = 0 – short circuit.

v iR 0

but the current is not.

Chapter 2 16

OHM’S LAW contd.

• An element with R = – open circuit.

i0

the voltage is not.

Chapter 2 17

OHM’S LAW contd.

• Another quantity in circuit analysis – conductance,

denoted by G.

1 i

G

R v

conduct electric current.

• Inverse of resistance.

Ω

Ω

• 1S = 1 = 1 A/V

Chapter 2 18

OHM’S LAW contd.

• Conductance – the ability of an element to

conduct electric current.

or siemens. Example: 10 Ω = 0.1 S

expressed in term of R:

2

v

p vi i 2 R

R

Chapter 2 19

OHM’S LAW contd.

• Or can also be expresses in term of G:

2

i

p vi v G

2

positive.

circuit.

Chapter 2 20

3.0 RESISTOR

element.

current i, with the constant of proportionality R

known as the resistance.

v i

v iR

v

or R

i

Chapter 2 21

RESISTOR contd.

Chapter 2 22

RESISTOR contd.

1MΩ.

• The 10% means the actual resistance is

between 1.1M Ω and 900kΩ.

Chapter 2 23

RESISTOR contd.

• The 5% means the actual resistance is between

157.5kΩ and 142.5kΩ.

Chapter 2 24

RESISTOR contd.

• The 5% means the actual resistance is

between 3,465Ω and 3,135Ω.

Chapter 2 25

RESISTOR contd.

• The 5% means the actual resistance is between

1050Ω and 950Ω.

Chapter 2 26

EXAMPLE

resistance.

v 120

R 60

i 2

(a resistor) that converts electrical energy to heat

energy. How much current is drawn by a toaster

with resistance 12Ω at 240V?

v 240

i 20 A

R 12

Chapter 2 27

• In the given circuit, calculate the current i, the

conductance G and the power p.

Chapter 2 28

Solution:

The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source

voltage (30V) because the resistor and the voltage source are

connected to the same pair of terminals. Hence the current is

v 30

i 6mA

R 5k

The conductance is

1 1

G 0.2mS

R 5k

p vi 30(6m ) 180mW

Chapter 2 29

or

p i 2R (6m )2 (5k ) 180mW

or

p v 2G 302 (0.2m ) 180mW

or

v 2 302

p 180mW

R 5k

Chapter 2 30

• For the given circuit, calculate the voltage v, the

conductance G and the power p.

Answer:

20V, 100µS, 40mW

Chapter 2 31

4.0 CAPACITOR

energy, which can be retrieved at later time.

electric field.

• It is a passive elements.

Chapter 2 32

CAPACITOR contd.

• Capacitor acts as a storage element:

There is a capacitor in parallel with the

resistor and light bulb. The way the capacitor

functions is by acting as a very low resistance

load when the circuit is initially turned on.

resistance, almost 0. Since electricity

takes the path of least resistance, almost

all the electricity flows through the

capacitor, not the resistor, as the

resistor has considerably higher

Chapter 2

resistance. 33

CAPACITOR contd.

increases as it gains more and more

charge. As the resistance of the

capacitor climbs, electricity begins to

flow not only to the capacitor, but

through the resistor as well.

battery, meaning it is fully charged, it will not

allow any current to pass through it. As a

capacitor charges its resistance increases and

becomes effectively infinite (open connection)

and all the electricity flows through the resistor.

Chapter 2 34

CAPACITOR contd.

the capacitor acts as a voltage source itself

drop, and so does its voltage. This means less

current flowing through the resistor

Chapter 2 35

CAPACITOR contd.

will flow.

(F).

Chapter 2 36

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2 37

5.0 INDUCTOR

energy in its magnetic field.

Chapter 2 38

INDUCTOR contd.

• Inductance is measured in henrys (H).

• Example:

– What you see here is a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire

around a piece of iron (yellow) and a switch. The coil of

wire is an inductor.

Chapter 2 39

INDUCTOR contd.

– Without the inductor in this circuit, what you

would have is a normal flashlight. You close the

switch and the bulb lights up.

the bulb burns brightly and then gets dimmer.

When the switch is opened, the bulb burns very

brightly and then quickly goes out.

inductor. When current first starts flowing in

the coil, the coil wants to build up a magnetic

field.

Chapter 2 40

INDUCTOR contd.

– While the field is building, the coil inhibits the

flow of current. Once the field is built, current

can flow normally through the wire (coil).

coil let only a small amount of current flow to the

light bulb. This is why the bulb gets dimmer.

around the coil keeps current flowing in the coil

until the field collapses. This current keeps the

bulb lit for a period of time even though the

switch is open. In other words, an inductor can

store energy in its magnetic field, and an

inductor tends to resist any change in the

amount of current flowing through it.

Chapter 2 41

INDUCTOR contd.

Chapter 2 42

6.0 KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

– The defining equations for circuit elements

(e.g. ohm’s law)

– Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL)

– Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL)

current within a circuit element are related.

currents in different branches are related.

Chapter 2 43

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

• Kirchhoff’s first law is based on the law of

conservation of charge, which required that the

algebraic sum of charges within a system cannot

change.

sum of currents entering a node (or a closed

boundary) is zero.

N

i

n 1

n 0 N = number of branches connected to a node.

Chapter 2 44

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

• Recall: Law of conservation of charge – charge can neither be

created or destroyed, only transferred. Thus the algebraic sum

of the electric charge in a system does not change.

currents leaving a node.

• Common sense:

– All of the electrons have to go somewhere.

– The current that goes in, has to come out some place.

4 + i = 5 + 11

thus, i = 12A

Chapter 2 45

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

• Consider the following figure where all the current

can be combined as in figure (b).

Chapter 2 46

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

• Kirchhoff’s second law is based on the principle of

conservation energy.

all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.

M

v

m 1

m 0 M = number of voltages on the loop.

the loop either clockwise /

counterclockwise.

2. Check which terminal the loop

encounter first,

• If positive terminal then +v.

• If negative terminal then –v.

Chapter 2 47

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

• Thus, KVL yields

v1 v 2 v 3 v 4 v 5 0

v 2 v 3 v 5 v1 v 4

be applied to obtained the total voltage.

voltages of the individual sources.

Chapter 2 48

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

Chapter 2 49

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS contd.

• Much of the circuit analysis will be based on these three laws.

Ohm’s Law : v iR

KCL : in 0

KVL :

v 0

m

• Important notes:

– If current enter at positive terminal

• v = +iR

• p = +vi

• v = -(iR)

• p = -(vi)

Chapter 2 50

EXAMPLE

Chapter 2 51

Apply Ohm’s law & KVL. Assume the current i

flow through the loop as shown below.

v1 = 2i, v2 = -3i (a)

-20 + v1 – v2 = 0 (b)

Chapter 2 52

Substituting equation a into b

-20 + 2i – (-3i) = 0

Thus, i = 4A

v1 = 8V & v2 = -12V

Chapter 2 53

EXAMPLE

Chapter 2 54

EXAMPLE

Chapter 2 55

EXAMPLE

Chapter 2 v2 = 6V, v3 = 6V 56

7.0 SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE

DIVIDER

resistors has the same value.

Thus,

i1 = i2 = i3

Chapter 2 57

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

v1 = iR1 , v2 = iR2 (2.1)

Chapter 2 58

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

• KVL (clockwise):

v1 + v2 – v = 0 (2.2)

v = v1+ v2 = i(R1 + R2)

v

or i

R1 R2

(2.3)

• Can be written as

v = iReq

Chapter 2 Req = R1 + R2

where 59

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

the sum of the individual resistances.

N

Re q R1 R2 ... RN Rn

n 1

Chapter 2 60

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER contd.

substitute eq 2.3 into 2.1

R1 R2

v1 v v2 v

R1 R2 R1 R2

division.

direct proportion to their resistances; the larger the

resistance, the larger the voltage drop.

Chapter 2 61

8.0 PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT

DIVIDER

drops across them.

Chapter 2 62

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

v = i1R1 , v = i2R2

Chapter 2 63

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

or

v v

i1 i2 (2.4)

R1 R2

i = i1 + i 2 (2.5)

(2.6)

v v 1 1 1

i v v

R1 R2 R1 R2 Req

Chapter 2 64

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

where

1 1 1

Req R1 R2

R1R2

Req

R1 R2

(eq 2.7)

• The above eq 2.7 only apply for two resistor

in parallel.

Chapter 2 65

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

1 1 1 1

...

Req R1 R2 RN

iR1R2

v iReq (2.8)

R1 R2

• Substituting eq 2.8 into 2.4 gives,

iR2 iR1

i1 i2

R1 R2 R1 R2 (2.9)

Chapter 2 66

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

division.

resistance.

Geq G1 G2 ... GN

where G = 1/R

Chapter 2 67

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVIDER contd.

through a path with least resistance.

flow through the short circuit.

Chapter 2 68

EXAMPLE

Answer: Req =

14.4Ω

Chapter 2 69

2) Find Req for the above figure.

Chapter 2 70

• Find Rab for the above figure.

Chapter 2 71

• Find Rab and current i for the above figure.

Chapter 2 72

9.0 WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS

nor parallel. For example,

Chapter 2 73

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

three-terminal equivalent network.

Chapter 2 74

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

(Δ) / pi (π).

delta network and vice versa.

analysis.

out of the circuit or put in anything new.

Chapter 2 75

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

• Delta-Wye conversion:

Rb Rc

R1

Ra Rb Rc

Ra Rc

R2

Ra Rb Rc

Ra Rb

R3

Ra Rb Rc

Chapter 2 76

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

• Wye-Delta conversion:

Ra

R1

Rb

R2

Rc

R3

Chapter 2 77

EXAMPLE

Chapter 2 78

Rb Rc 10(25) 250

R1 5

Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50

Ra Rc 25(15) 375

R2 7.5

Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50

Ra Rb 15(10) 150

R3 3

Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50

Chapter 2 79

Converted delta to wye network:

Chapter 2 80

2) Convert the wye network to delta network

Chapter 2 81

3) Obtain the equivalent resistance Rab for the circuit

below.

Chapter 2 82

Answer: Rab = 9.632Ω & i = 12.458A

Chapter 2 83

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