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T IO N

N I C A
M MU
CO
The process of
Communication
 Is the process of exchanging
information and the process of
generating and transmitting
meanings between 2 or more
individuals.
 It is the foundation of society and the
most primary aspect of a nurse-
patient interaction.
 Communication involves a source(
encoder) ;message , channel and
receiver ( decoder
 This communication process is
initiated based on a stimulus or a
patient need must be addressed.
 THE PATIENT NEED might be due to a
patient’s discomfort , a need for
information, or to address any
uncertainty the patient might be
experiencing
Sender/source (encoder)

Person or
group who
initiates or
begins the
communicatio
n process
message
 Is the actual
physiologic product
of the source
 Might be a speech
interview,
telephone
conversation ,
chart ,
conversation
,gesture ,
memorandum or
nursing note
Channel of communication
 Medium the sender has selected to
send the message

 Itmight target any of the receiver’s


senses
 A.
AUDITORY-
Message
spoken words and
can be sent cues
to the
 B.VISUAL-sight ,
receiver observation and
through the perception

ff channels  C.KINESTHETIC-
touch
RECEIVER OR DECODER
 Must translate or
interpret the
message sent
 Through the
translation of
message, the
receiver must then
make a decision
about an accurate
response
FEEDBACK
 Confirmation of the message
provides feedback (evidence) that
the receiver has understood the
intended message

 FACTORSTHAT DISTORT
THEQUALITY OF A MESSAGE
Might be in the form of TV, or from pain
or discomfort experienced by patient
4 LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION

• A. INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

• B. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

• C. SMALL-GROUP COMMUNICATION

• D. ORGANIZATIONAL
INTRAPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
 Self-talk; communication that happens within
the individual
 Nurses uses self-talk to enhance positive
interaction with the pt and family
 Is crucial because it affects the nurse’s
behavior
 Understanding the importance can also help
you to work with patient’s and families whose
negative self-talk affects their health-care
abilities
INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
 Occurs between two or more people with
a goal to exchange messages

 Nurses spent communicating with


patients , family members and members
of the health team
SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION

 Occurs when nurses interact with 2 or


more individuals.
 Members of small group must
communicate to achieve their goal
 Examples: staff meetings; patient care
conference , teaching sessions; or
support groups
ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMUNICATION
 Occurs when an individual and groups
within an organization communicate to
achieve established goals.
 Nurse on a practice council meeting to
review unit policies or nurses working
with interdisciplinary groups on strategic
planning or quality assurance will use
organizational communication to achieve
aims
Group dynamics
 Can be described most simply as how
individual group members relate to one
another during the process of working
toward group goals
 Each group member uses his/her talents
and interpersonal strengths and
interpersonal strengths to help the group
to accomplish its goals
Group dynamics

 Effectivegroups posses members who


are mutually respectful
 Individual group-member roles can be
categorized in one or three ways
 A) task-oriented role- focusing on the work
to be done (ex: information giver, informtion
seeker , clarifier , coordinator , delegator
,energizer , evaluator)
 B. group –building or maintenance roles-
focusing on the well being of people
doing the work. (ex. Active listener ,
harmonizer, trust builder , tension
reliever , or supporter
 C. self-servicing roles- which advance
the needs of individual members at the
groups’ expense (ex: attention seeker ,
dominator ,blocker ,special pleader ,
withdrawer, aggressor
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION
 COMMUNICATION-
is the process of
sending and
receiving messages
in the forms of
Verbal and Non
verbal
communication
techniques.
VERBAL COMMUNICATION
 Exchange of information using words ,
including both the spoken and written word
 verbal communication depends on language.
 LANGUAGE- is a prescribed way of using
words so that people can share information
effectively
 Nurses use verbal communication extensively
when providing patient care( giving oral
reports to other nurses, writing care plans)
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION

 Transmission of information without the use


of words
 It is what is not said
 Often termed body language
 it often helps nurses to understand subtle and
hidden meanings in what is being said
verbally
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION

 Information is exchanged through nonverbal


communication in various ways/ forms
 Expresses more of the true meaning of a
message than verbal communication ;
therefore nurses must be aware of both non
verbal messages they receive from patients
FORMS OF NON VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
 TOUCH-
 viewed as one of the
most effective non verbal
ways to express feelings
of comfort , love ,
affection , security ,
anger , frustration ,
aggression , excitement
and many others
touch
Eye contact / posture
 Eye  Posture
contact

 Suggests  The way the


respect
and a willingness person holds the
to listen and to body
keep  Provides nonverbal
communication cues concerning
open pain and physical
 Its absence often limitations
indicates anxiety or
avoidance of
communication
GAIT
A BOUNCY
PURPOSEFUL WALK
USUALLY CARRIES
A MESSAGE OF
WELL BEING ; LESS
PUPOSEFUL OFTEN
MEANS THE
PERSON IS SAD OR
DISCOURAGED
GESTURES
GESTURES
USING VARIOUS PARTS OF THE BODY CAN
CARRY NUMEROUS MESSAGES--- example
thumbs up ( victory), kicking an object
(angry); wringing the hands or tapping a
foot indicates anxiety

Closed body positions, such as crossed


legs or arms folded across the chest,
indicate that the interaction might
threaten the listener who is defensive or
not accepting.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
FACE – most
expressive part of
the body

 nurse need to
learn to control
their own facial
expressions
GENERAL PHYSICAL
APPEARANCE
MODE OF DRESS AND GROOMING

 Healthy people with


self esteem tend to
pay attention to
details of dress and
grooming
 sick> demonstrate
little interest in
personal
appearance
SOUNDS
 CRYING
 MOANING
 GASPING
 SIGHING
 > can be
interpreted in
numerous ways
silence
 May indicate
complete
understanding of
each other or
might mean that
they are angry
with each other