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• Definition • General Surveillance Awareness • Surveillance Detection Routes (SDR)
• Route Analysis
• Surveillance Detection - The process of determining your surveillance status
– Incorporated into your lifestyle and habits – Simple and routine – Nothing that causes a potential surveillance team to question any action or lack of action – from start to finish
– The process of using other people to help determine your surveillance status – Normally relies on Observation Posts (OP) – OPs should be higher than your location – Observers relay a signal of some sort to you
General Surveillance Awareness • Awareness of Surroundings in Public – Note who and what is in your area – Vary your approaches to destinations – Watch for repeated sightings of people that seem out of place .
General Surveillance Awareness • Note suspicious activities: – Vehicles pass the same area repeatedly or at slower than a normal rate – Vehicles with multiple passengers – Dirty vehicles with clean license plates (or vice versa) indicates a recent change – People lingering in your area or passing by frequently – Look at windows in nearby buildings for anything out of the ordinary – Look for people or vehicles making evasive movements .
General Surveillance Awareness • Maintain a low profile! • Beware of complacency! • Default state – Conduct all operational activities with the assumption that you are under hostile surveillance – Abort operational activities if you detect surveillance .
• AKA “Surveillance Detection Run” • Objective • Criteria for an SDR . It's designed to be natural and non-alerting.Surveillance Detection Routes (SDR) • Definition – A planned route taken by an operator for the purpose of detecting surveillance in support of an operational objective.
Objective • Establish repeated correlation of surveillance team and target activities over “TDD” – TIME • Has a reasonable amount of time elapsed since the first sighting? – DISTANCE • Have you traveled far enough to indicate that a second sighting is more than a coincidence? – DIRECTION • Have you made several changes in direction since the previous sighting? .
three times = correlation – "Once is happenstance. • Rule of thumb . • Don’t alert surveillants! – Detecting surveillance can be easy. twice is coincidence. .Objective • Adopt behaviors that require observable responses from surveillants.“ • Look for non-changeable features! – Surveillants may use “disguises” to avoid detection. three times is surveillance. but avoiding alerting surveillants makes it more challenging.
. – Establish correlation between your actions and those of your surveillance – Ensure the correlation is not a coincidence using the TDD factors ..Criteria for an SDR • Must cover sufficient TDD to “break the box” • Uses plausible pretexts for any activities designed to detect surveillance status • Does not include any elements that are unnatural or alerting to surveillants – keep their perception of you neutral • Uses strategies to force the surveillance team to reveal itself.
Abort Routes • Used to abort an SDR prior to any operational activity • Legitimizes the route from start to finish • Not an obvious change or deviation .
Anatomy of an SDR Cover Stop Start Point Observation Post Cover Stop Surveillance Detection Point Surveillance Detection Point Cover Stop Surveillance Detection Point Observation Post Abort Route End Point Operational Activity End Point .
. • • • • • • • • • • Surveillance Detection Points (SDP) Choke Points Cover Stop Channel Multiple Turns Natural Reverses Stair-Stepping Varied Traffic Density Changing Modes of Transportation "Sifting" .Strategies to force the surveillance team to reveal itself..
Surveillance Detection Points (SDP) • "Intrusion Points" .locations where surveillance is expected to intrude • Example – Entering a building with multiple exits – the team will probably decide to follow you if they don’t have enough people to cover all exits .
Choke Points • Locations on a route that can't be avoided due to environmental factors • Examples – Entrance to a building or compound – Revolving doors leading into office buildings or shopping centers .
Cover Stop • Location that provides a logical reason for the route and aids in timing • Example – Stopping at a specialty store to make a purchase or inquire about an item .
Channel • Linear area where surveillance must travel in order to follow a target • Example – Crossing a bridge .
Multiple Turns • Several logical changes in direction of travel • Example – Turning left at an intersection and then merging onto a highway .
– A rotary or highway onramp/exit ramp that gives you a view in the opposite direction CLEAR VIEW OF SURVEILLANTS .Natural Reverses • LOGICAL changes to travel in the opposite direction • An unnatural reverse is a very alerting behavior • Examples – Driving to a parking lot in a major city and then backtracking on foot to reach a logical destination.
Stair-Stepping • Movement to intended destination in a series of "doglegs" (linear movement to various intrusion points or cover stops) • Example – Zigzag travel to multiple intrusion points and cover stops to "run errands" en route to a final destination .
.Varied Traffic Density • Repeated movement into and out of areas with many or few people (or vehicles) • Example I NEED A LOGICAL REASON TO BE IN THIS DESERT. – Entering and exiting a large crowd to purchase a ticket to a public event I NEED A LOGICAL REASON TO BE IN THIS CROWD.
THE REASON SHOULD BE PRETTY OBVIOUS! . • Example – Walking to a cab stand and then taking a cab to the nearest subway station REMEMBER THAT YOUR SURVEILLANTS MIGHT NOT BE TOO BRIGHT OR CREATIVE. and use of a vehicle EVERYTHING YOU DO DURING AN SDR MUST APPEAR TO HAVE A LOGICAL REASON. public transportation.Changing Modes of Transportation • LOGICAL switching between travel on foot.
"Sifting" • Eliminates irrelevant suspicions through the application of TDD factors until you achieve certainty • Example – Continue an SDR to include at least three significantly different locations at three significantly different points in time .
– This is the most likely location for a physical attack against the target. GRENADE!! TWO OPERATORS ENTER AN APT TWO PURPLE HEARTS (POSTHUMOUSLY AWARDED) .Route Analysis • Areas of Predictable Travel (APT) – An area on a route that a target must travel through in order to reach a known destination.
."Hollywood Tradecraft" • Driving backwards • Getting on and then quickly getting off of a subway train • Driving down dead-end streets • Illogical U-Turns • Entering a crowded movie theater and then immediately walking out the exit Surveillant: Why is he making a U-turn? Surveillant: Why is he driving on a golf course? Answer: because he’s an idiot.
Remember • The surveillance team’s perception is their reality and they will react accordingly. Hollywood Tradecraft makes sense when your objective is survival! . • Your reality isn’t relevant – they only know what they perceive based on your actions On the other hand.
– Enter a subway station at a time when a large crowd will be exiting. . They only make sense when immediate survival or another unusual circumstance outweighs consideration of long term operational viability. how could you lose surveillance in the unlikely event that you need to do so? – Jump into a taxi when no other cabs are immediately available. – Pass through a revolving door that will slow pursuit and then immediately duck out of sight.Losing Surveillance • With the preceding warnings about Hollywood Tradecraft in mind. cross through the crowd. – Take a bus just before it leaves a stop. • Remember that these and other similar actions will serve as red flags to surveillants. and then quickly leave from the other side of the station. – Etc.
About Mobile Phones • Mobile phones can act as carriers for any radiated signal – This means your mobile phone conversations can be intercepted by mistake • Mobile phones can also serve as beacons that allow surveillants (physical/technical) to track you • Turn off your mobile phone AND disconnect the battery to mitigate this risk .
ACTIVITY • Design and conduct an SDR Surveillance Detection Point Cover Stop Surveillance Detection Point Cover Stop Start Point Observation Post Cover Stop Observation Post Surveillance Detection Point Abort Route End Point Operational Activity End Point .
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