Problem Solving
Prepared by:
Siti Najwa Binti Baharim
Yusnida Binti Yunus Siti Syahrun Nurul ‘Ain Binti Mohd Misan
What is a problem
•
Arise when people has a goal but does not
know how this goal is to be reached. • Whenever one cannot go from the given situation to the desired situation simply by action, then there is recourse to thinking. • Problem is an activity of a motivated subject.
Problem Solving
• (a) only to perceptual and conceptual tasks
• (b) the nature of which the subject by reason of original nature, of previous learning, or of organization of the task, is able to understand, but ,
• (c) for which at the time he knows no direct means of satisfaction.
• (d) The subject experiences perplexity in the problem situation, but he does not experience
utter confusion.
( Brownell, 1942).
Characteristics of Good Problems
• Interactions between students/students and teacher/students (Van Zoest et al., 1994)
• Mathematical dialogue and consensus between students (Van Zoest et al., 1994)
• Teachers guiding, coaching, asking insightful questions and sharing in the process of solving problems (Lester et al., 1994)
• Teachers knowing when it is appropriate to intervene, and when to step back and let the pupils make their own way (Lester et al., 1994)
Strategy of Problem Solving by George Polya • Understand the problem • Devising a plan • Carrying out the plan • Looking back@ Checking Answers
The Important to Learn Problem
Solving
• An important component of mathematics education to achieve the values of mathematics:
functional, logical and aesthetic. • More motivational than teaching the skills
without a context for learning new concepts and
skills or the reinforcement of skills already acquired.
• Helps people to adapt to changes and unexpected problems in their lives.
• Gives students experience the power of mathematics
Strategies / heuristics for problem
solving
• Choose the operation
• Guess, check and improve • Look for a pattern • Draw a diagram •
Draw a table • Logical reasoning • Make an analogy • Act a situation • Working backwards
A sales promotion in a store advertises a pair of shoes
regularly priced at RM65 but now selling for 10% off the regular price. Nina only has RM60 in her pocket. Does she have enough money to buy the shoes?
First Strategy: Choose The Operation
x RM65 = RM6.50
RM65.00  RM6.50 = RM58.50
Second strategy: Guess Check and
Improve
is
RM 65.00
RM 32.50
(Rm65/2)
RM 6.50
(RM32.50/5)
RM 65.00 – RM 6.50 = RM58.50
“The best strategy to solve this problem is using the first strategy using the
arithmetic operation
because this question
consists of number. It is
hard for student to guess if
they are not good enough in Mathematic especially in
primary school”.
A police station has 25 vehicles consisting of motorcycles and cars. The total number of tires of both motorcycles and cars equal to 70. Find the number of motorcycles and cars the station has.
First Strategy : Using Draw A Diagram/
Sketches.
1. Sketches before we add 2 more tires to make the number of tires become 70:
OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

First Strategy : Using Draw A Diagram/
Sketches.
2. Sketches after we add 2 more tires to make the number of tires become 70:
OOOO OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OOOO
OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

“The best strategy to solve this problem is the first
strategy whereby we use
sketches so that the question will look easy in image rather
than full of number.”
What is the weight of 5 bricks, while each of them weighs
1.2kg?
First Strategy : Choose The Operation
•
5 X 1.2 = 6kg OR
•
1.2 + 1.2 + 1.2 +1.2 +1.2 =6 kg
Second Strategy : Draw The Table
Number of bricks

Weight

1

1.2kg

2

2.4kg

3

3.6kg

4

4.8kg

5

6kg

“The best strategy is the first
one since this was a very
simple and straight forward question but the table might help students who have problems in imagine things. The table can help to simplify it.”.
Each triangle in the figure below has 3 dots. Study the pattern and find the number of dots for 7 layers of triangles.
Second Strategy :Act A Situation
• We can use the ‘real’ matches so that the head’s of the match
will consider as the dots. Using that matches and tries to build until it became 7 layers of triangle.
The best strategy to solve this problem is using the first one,
drawing a table. It is because it
will be hard to get the matches just to solve this problem but
this timecostly strategy will suit the lower form primary school better. The object we use will simplify the problem but the moment we can see the pattern through the number after we draw a table actually can be much easier.”.
A carnival worker needs to fill an animal’s drinking tank with 7.5 gallons of water. He has a 5 gallon pail and 8gallon pail. How can he use these pails to get exactly 7.5 gallons of water into the tank?
First Strategy :Act A Situation
cannot be done because the capacity of the
tank is smaller than the 8gallon pail.
Second Strategy : Logical reason
1. The 8gallon pail is bigger than the
capacity of the tank. We only need 7.5gallon for the tank. So we cannot be use the 8gallon pail.
2. To get another 2.5gallon to
complete the task, use the same pail of 5gallon but this time
divides it into two portions so we
can get 2.5gallon each portion
“The first strategy is the best because we can act it out. We can
see the actual problem clearly.
However the second strategy might be suitable for good
problem solver because to use
just the brain and some sketches, that person needs to have strong
basic in mathematics and it will save more times”.
REFLECTION
• We can learn details regarding problem solving method.
•
Can applied it in our daily life.
• Teach us how to analyze and defining the problems.
ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS
•

Good team working.

•

One of team members had a good background in

mathematics.

•

Full support from families and classmates.

WEAKNESSES
•
•
•
Limited sources Lack of time Confuse with the
method
Much more than documents.
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