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Problem Solving

Prepared by:

Siti Najwa Binti Baharim

Yusnida Binti Yunus Siti Syahrun Nurul Ain Binti Mohd Misan

What is a problem

Arise when people has a goal but does not

know how this goal is to be reached. Whenever one cannot go from the given situation to the desired situation simply by action, then there is recourse to thinking. Problem is an activity of a motivated subject.

Problem Solving

(a) only to perceptual and conceptual tasks

(b) the nature of which the subject by reason of original nature, of previous learning, or of organization of the task, is able to understand, but ,

(c) for which at the time he knows no direct means of satisfaction.

(d) The subject experiences perplexity in the problem situation, but he does not experience

utter confusion.

( Brownell, 1942).

Characteristics of Good Problems

Interactions between students/students and teacher/students (Van Zoest et al., 1994)

Mathematical dialogue and consensus between students (Van Zoest et al., 1994)

Teachers guiding, coaching, asking insightful questions and sharing in the process of solving problems (Lester et al., 1994)

Teachers knowing when it is appropriate to intervene, and when to step back and let the pupils make their own way (Lester et al., 1994)

Strategy of Problem Solving by George Polya Understand the problem Devising a plan Carrying out the plan Looking back@ Checking Answers

The Important to Learn Problem

Solving

An important component of mathematics education to achieve the values of mathematics:

functional, logical and aesthetic. More motivational than teaching the skills

without a context for learning new concepts and

skills or the reinforcement of skills already acquired.

Helps people to adapt to changes and unexpected problems in their lives.

Gives students experience the power of mathematics

Strategies / heuristics for problem

solving

Choose the operation

Guess, check and improve Look for a pattern Draw a diagram

Draw a table Logical reasoning Make an analogy Act a situation Working backwards

A sales promotion in a store advertises a pair of shoes

regularly priced at RM65 but now selling for 10% off the regular price. Nina only has RM60 in her pocket. Does she have enough money to buy the shoes?

First Strategy: Choose The Operation

First Strategy: Choose The Operation x RM65 = RM6.50 RM65.00 - RM6.50 = RM58.50

x RM65 = RM6.50

RM65.00 - RM6.50 = RM58.50

Second strategy: Guess Check and

  • 1. 100%

Improve

is

RM 65.00

  • 2. 50% is

  • 3. 10% is

RM 32.50

(Rm65/2)

RM 6.50

(RM32.50/5)

RM 65.00 RM 6.50 = RM58.50

The best strategy to solve this problem is using the first strategy using the

arithmetic operation

because this question

consists of number. It is

hard for student to guess if

they are not good enough in Mathematic especially in

primary school”.

A police station has 25 vehicles consisting of motorcycles and cars. The total number of tires of both motorcycles and cars equal to 70. Find the number of motorcycles and cars the station has.

First Strategy : Using Draw A Diagram/

Sketches.

1. Sketches before we add 2 more tires to make the number of tires become 70:

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

First Strategy : Using Draw A Diagram/

Sketches.

2. Sketches after we add 2 more tires to make the number of tires become 70:

OOOO OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OOOO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

OO

Second Strategy : Making A Chart. Cars Motorcycles Total of vehicles (4 tires) (2 tires) (70
Second Strategy : Making A Chart.
Cars
Motorcycles
Total of vehicles
(4 tires)
(2 tires)
(70 tires)
6
19
(6x4)+(19x2)=62
7
18
(7x4)+(18x2)=64
8
17
(8x4)+(17x2)=66
9
16
(9x4)+(16x2)=68
10
15 (10x4)+(15x2)=70

The best strategy to solve this problem is the first

strategy whereby we use

sketches so that the question will look easy in image rather

than full of number.

What is the weight of 5 bricks, while each of them weighs

1.2kg?

First Strategy : Choose The Operation

5 X 1.2 = 6kg OR

1.2 + 1.2 + 1.2 +1.2 +1.2 =6 kg

Second Strategy : Draw The Table

Number of bricks

Weight

1

1.2kg

2

2.4kg

3

3.6kg

4

4.8kg

5

6kg

The best strategy is the first

one since this was a very

simple and straight forward question but the table might help students who have problems in imagine things. The table can help to simplify it.”.

Each triangle in the figure below has 3 dots. Study the pattern and find the number of dots for 7 layers of triangles.

Second Strategy :Act A Situation

We can use the ‘real’ matches so that the head’s of the match

will consider as the dots. Using that matches and tries to build until it became 7 layers of triangle.

The best strategy to solve this problem is using the first one,

drawing a table. It is because it

will be hard to get the matches just to solve this problem but

this time-costly strategy will suit the lower form primary school better. The object we use will simplify the problem but the moment we can see the pattern through the number after we draw a table actually can be much easier.”.

A carnival worker needs to fill an animal’s drinking tank with 7.5 gallons of water. He has a 5- gallon pail and 8-gallon pail. How can he use these pails to get exactly 7.5 gallons of water into the tank?

First Strategy :Act A Situation

  • 1. To calculate how much water in each:

  • 2. Take a pail with the measures required.

  • 3. Fill 8-gallon pail.

  • 4. Pour water from 8-gallon into the tank. It

cannot be done because the capacity of the

tank is smaller than the 8-gallon pail.

  • 5. Use the 5-gallon pail. Full it up. Pour it into the tank.

  • 6. Take another 5-gallon water. Divide into two and we will get 2.5-gallon that we need in order to fill up the 7.5-gallon tank.

Second Strategy : Logical reason

1. The 8-gallon pail is bigger than the

capacity of the tank. We only need 7.5-gallon for the tank. So we cannot be use the 8-gallon pail.

2. To get another 2.5-gallon to

complete the task, use the same pail of 5-gallon but this time

divides it into two portions so we

can get 2.5-gallon each portion

“The first strategy is the best because we can act it out. We can

see the actual problem clearly.

However the second strategy might be suitable for good

problem solver because to use

just the brain and some sketches, that person needs to have strong

basic in mathematics and it will save more times”.

REFLECTION

We can learn details regarding problem solving method.

Can applied it in our daily life.

Teach us how to analyze and defining the problems.

ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS

Good team working.

One of team members had a good background in

mathematics.

Full support from families and classmates.

WEAKNESSES

Limited sources Lack of time Confuse with the

method