Aviation Simulation

by Ahmad Ahsan

Aviation Simulation
by Ahmad Ahsan

PreFlight Inspection

Preflight Inspection
• • • • • One of the most important tasks What is it? Why do we do it? Should you follow a checklist? Whose responsibility is it?

• The preflight inspection is a thorough and systematic means by which a pilot determines if the aircraft is airworthy and in condition for safe operation. • POHs and owner/information manuals contain a section devoted to a systematic method of performing a preflight inspection. (PHAK 8-9)

Preflight Inspection

• Check the weather reports • Check for any NOTAMS and other information related to your flight • File a flight plan (if required) • Check the weight and balance • Check for any modifications or maintenance carried out before your flight • Talk to pilots who have flown the plane just before you • IMSAFE

Before leaving the building

• The preflight inspection is an inspection that we perform on the plane • before each and every flight • to ensure the safety and correct operation of all aspects of the airplane. • It covers everything on the airplane, from controls to instruments, and everything in between.

Preflight Inspection

“360” or “walk around”
Begin 1. cabin 2. tail 3. right wing 4. Fuel & landing gear 5. nose, prop, cowling 6. Left fuel, LG 7. left wing 8. cont. left wing

• Open your eyes • Look for any leaks or bolts on the ground near/around the airplane • Look for any hanging/missing parts • Is the aircraft level or tilted? Tilt may indicate small issues like problem with gear strut, or big issues like structural failure. • Is everything straight and properly aligned?

When approaching the airplane

• To ensure aircraft is “airworthy” • To ensure normal operation of all systems equipment and controls • To inspect equipment and controls • To observe any issues that may cause problems during flight • To look for any damage • The accomplishment of a safe flight begins with a careful visual inspection of the airplane. • The purpose of the preflight visual inspection is twofold: -to determine that the airplane is legally airworthy, -that it is in condition for safe flight. (FAA8083-3B)

Why do we do it?

• • • • •

How should you do it?

Keep your eyes and ears open Don’t rush Follow a checklist Be thorough…..inspect each and every item Do not proceed randomly, follow the order recommended by the aircraft manufacturer • If in doubt check again

• • If distracted, restart from 3 steps before • Look for any missing bolts on the upper and lower surfaces • Feel the surface of the aircraft….sometimes you cannot see fine cracks or nicks • Exercise caution when examining the prop

How should you do it? Avoid any distractions

• Each airplane has its special areas that must be examined. • Such specialized systems mean that first you have to look at the handbook for the airplane and read what the manufacturer recommends doing on the preflight. • Refer to your aircraft’s POH.

How should you do it?

• • • •

Categories of Inspection
Visual Check - lights ON/OFF – master switch, radios, etc. SET – set an item for takeoff such as trim Apply and Check – flight controls, brakes, etc.

How to follow the checklist?

How to follow the checklist?
What you are inspecting

Item being inspected

Condition of the item

Now you can move to the next item…..

• • • • •

Dents (esp. on leading edge of wings & stab) Cracks (windows or fuselage) Leaks (underneath wings, landing gear, nose) Holes or chipped off parts Don’t forget to look at the lower surface!

What to look for?

• • • • •

Missing or misaligned bolts or rivets Control cable strength and tension Flap and aileron hinges Anything “out of the ordinary” Wear, nicks or damage of propeller

What to look for?

• Fuel quantity and fuel caps • Check fuel: a) color & smell b) water contamination c) feel it (evaporates/cools) d) drop on the ground e) test fuel from all sumps or drain points f) rock the wings g) aviation fuel wont “bubble” h) at night, use a light i) in daytime, color=sky j) in cold weather, look for crystals

What to look for?

• Check any vents for blockage • Oil quantity and cap/latch • Check bottom of the tanks for any leaks or discoloration • Recheck before any flight

What to look for?

• Look at the static and pitot ports • Move controls to full deflection. Check they are free and CORRECT • Remove the pitot tube cover, control locks, chocks, and tie downs.

What to look for?

• If you are unsure, always:

What to look for?

TELL SOMEONE
• Ask an instructor, technician, or senior pilot. If you are not flying the airplane, report what you see to the PIC.

• Aeroperu 757 crashed due to tape on the static port killing 70 people. • Forgot to remove tie-down – crashed into fuel truck. • Improper oil/fuel has killed many people • Didn’t check controls….. “Free and CORRECT” • Missing rivets or bolts may indicate stress or other structural problems.

Every little thing counts!

• A casual preflight check = aircraft wreck • Follow the procedures and be thorough. Procedures are there for your safety and the safety of others.

In conclusion

Remember No matter what, the main task is to focus and

pay all attention to your aircraft. • A good preflight: - does not take too long - is thorough - excludes distractions - follows a proper outline (manufacturer recommended) - uses full attention on the task

• Airworthiness (Certificate of Airworthiness)
• Registration Certificate • Radio station license. • Operating Handbook or Owner’s Manual (POH) • Weight and Balance sheet
FAAH-8083-3B 2-1, CFR 14 91.103

Documents on Aircraft

• The determination of whether the airplane is in a condition for safe flight is made by a preflight inspection of the airplane and its components • The preflight inspection should be performed in accordance with a printed checklist provided by the airplane manufacturer for the specific make and model airplane. • The preflight inspection of the airplane should begin while approaching the airplane on the ramp. • The pilot should make note of the: • general appearance of the airplane, • landing gear out of alignment, • structural distortion, • skin damage, • and dripping fuel or oil leaks. • Uponreaching the airplane, all tiedowns, control locks, and chocks should be removed. (FAA 8083-3B 2-2)

• Wet seat or carpet after rain may indicate structural problem or misalignment of door/fuselage • Misaligned rivets may indicate structural problem • Small delamination (crazing) may seriously affect visibility • Any unusual noise should be checked • Check your instruments – cross check airspeed (zero), altitude (field elevation), vsi indication, attitude indicator, etc. • Any ripples or waves may present a serious risk • Fuel stains need to be investigated. Check above the wing too! • Any slack control cables should be inspected

Small Things to Look for….

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Check all documents Charts and navigation source Secure any loose items Ensure proper seating position Double check any tie downs or chocks Before starting the engine: check all sides, “clear” Anti collision light Once the engine is started, test the brakes (procedure) Carry out a radio check Announce your intentions before you move Exercise caution in strong winds Use the rudder for turning and stop with the nosewheel straight.

In the cockpit

• Usually near the runway in a clear area, pointed into the wind • Stay clear of other aircraft • The airplane should be positioned on a firm, smooth, and/or paved surface. • Straighten the airplane’s nosewheel to reduce stress during the magneto check. • Beware of braking action • Follow the recommendations/checklist in the POH

Before Take Off

• • Confirm controls free and correct • Look & Listen for other traffic • Before entering the runway, obtain permission or announce intentions (as suitable) • Follow the checklist item by item. • Do not accept any unacceptable levels of airplane performance. • Read each checklist items aloud and touch each indicated control. • Frequently scan the engine instruments throughout the pre-takeoff check. • Do not let the engine overheat. • Look for overheat conditions on the cylinder head temperature gauge, or oil temperature gauge.

Before Take Off Thumb points in direction of “UP Aileron, DOWN wing”

• • • • • •

Confirm runway lengths are adequate. Review emergency procedures, especially: -engine failure during ground roll. -engine failure just after liftoff, runway remaining. -engine failure after liftoff, up to 500 feet. -engine failure on climb out, 500-1000 feet.

Before Take Off

•If you have any doubts, do not fly.

Before Take Off

• Cross check you are on the correct runway. Match the mag compass with the dg. (Singapore Airlines 747) • Transponder • Ready for emergency?

On the Runway

• • • • • • • • • •

In the cockpit
Check all documents Charts and navigation source Secure any loose items Ensure proper seating position Double check any tie downs or chocks Before starting the engine: check all sides, “clear” Anti collision light Once the engine is started, test the brakes Carry out a radio check Announce your intentions before you move

• The determination of whether the airplane is in a condition for safe flight is made by a preflight inspection of the airplane and its components • The preflight inspection should be performed in accordance with a printed checklist provided by the airplane manufacturer for the specific make and model airplane. • The preflight inspection of the airplane should begin while approaching the airplane on the ramp. • The pilot should make note of the: • general appearance of the airplane, • landing gear out of alignment, • structural distortion, • skin damage, • and dripping fuel or oil leaks. • Uponreaching the airplane, all tiedowns, control locks, and chocks should be removed. (FAA 8083-3B 2-2)

Questions
• Q: You’re conducting the preflight inspection and you see that one of the screws inside the engine cowling is missing. You know it’s not a major concern. What do you do?
A: Tell instructor/PIC/AMT

Questions
• Q: You see a dent in the aileron that looks symmetrical that matches and is in the same place as another dent in the other aileron. Should you overlook it?

A: Absolutely not. It’s a dent and it looks and makes you suspicious, so you should definitely ask your instructor or AMT about it.

Questions
• Q: As you’re checking the oil, you notice that it’s just barely above the 6 quarts line (the minimum is 6). Should you mention this to possibly add another quart of oil, or should you ignore it because the oil level is adequate and meets the requirement?
A: Tell another pilot or mechanic and ask for their advice.

Questions
• Q: As you’re checking the strut, tire, and brake of the right landing gear, you notice that the tire seems just a bit flat. It may just be you, or that the plane hasn’t been flying in 2 days and the weight temporarily flattened it. What should you do?
A: Tell an instructor or AMT - The tire pressure is supposed to be 29 PSI but it may have dropped. Get it checked.

Essential Questions
• What is preflight inspection? • Why do we conduct a preflight inspection? • Why is it important to go in order of the checklist? • What sorts of things am I looking for specifically during the preflight inspection? • What should I do if I find something that is out of the ordinary?

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