Traffic Pattern

Traffic Pattern • Just like traffic rules, “traffic pattern” is a standard
way/route followed at an airport • The methods used for safely adjusting the flow of air traffic at and near airport, and the major traffic services and landing approach aids that are available. • It may vary from place to place • The purpose is orderly traffic flow and safety • A pattern depends on the airport, weather, etc. • Rules and procedures are based on logic, common sense, courtesy • The aim is always to keep air traffic moving with maximum safety and efficiency. • It allows convenience for arriving and departing aircraft

• For assuring proper traffic flow into or out of an airport, pilots are advised to check traffic pattern routes. • Each traffic pattern depends on local conditions, geographical surrounding, altitutde, and other procedures. • Normally, all traffic is "left hand" or "standard" meaning all turns are to the left. • Simply put, a traffic pattern, from start to finish is a rectangular pattern. • Usually, the traffic pattern altitude is 1000 feet above the airport surface. • Pilots may have to conform to airspeed limitations. • Rectangular traffic pattern has various legs, each at a 90 degree difference from the other with respect to ground track. • The actual heading difference in the airplane may be different due to wind.

Traffic Pattern

Traffic Pattern • The departure (often called upwind)
leg leads AWAY from the takeoff runway. • Begins at the point aircraft lifts off the ground. • After take off, pilot should continue on this leg to within 300 feet of TPA. • If intending to leave the pattern, the pilot should continue forward, or make a 45 degree turn outwards. • Continues till 90 degree turn to CROSSWIND.

Traffic Pattern • The crosswind leg is at a 90 degree
angle to: the upwind leg, the downwind leg, and the runway. • Since this leg is also at a 90 degree angle with the wind, some sort of correction must be made which will allow suitable ground track. • After reaching TPA, and at sufficient distance from the runway, a turn is made. • This leads to the DOWNWIND leg.

• Downwind leg is parallel, but opposite to the landing runway. • In this leg, you should be at TPA. • Approx 1.5 to 2 kms from the runway. How can you judge it?

Traffic Pattern

• You should complete the pre landing checklist and configure for landing. Abeam the numbers, start descending. • At 45 degrees from the landing runway, start the base turn.

Traffic Pattern The base leg transitions between the downwind and
the final.

• It should be far enough to allow descent at a gradual pace. • Ground track may need to be adjusted. • Before turning on final, check traffic.

Traffic Pattern The base leg transitions between the downwind and
the final.

• It should be far enough to allow descent at a gradual pace. • Ground track may need to be adjusted. • Before turning on final, check traffic.

Traffic Pattern Final leg leads from a descending point to the
runway

• Priority over other traffic • Descending path at particular airspeed • Maintain directional control

Leg Names
DOWNWIND BASE CROSSWIND

FINAL

UPWIND

This pattern is called left traffic, as all turns are made to the left. What would happen in opposite wind?

Preflight Inspection
• One of the most important tasks • What is it? • Why do we do it? • Should you follow a checklist? • Whose responsibility is it?

• A = Attitude • I = Illness • S = Stress • A = Alcohol • F = Fatigue

AM I SAFE?

• M = Medication

• E = Eating (According to Airplane Flying Handbook) • E = Emotions (According to AIM)

Before leaving the building •
Check the weather reports • Check for any NOTAMS and other information related to your flight • File a flight plan (if required) • Check the weight and balance • Check for any modifications or maintenance carried out before your flight • Talk to pilots who have flown the plane just before you • Am I Safe?

Wind Considerations
WINDSOCK

WIND

Which way should you go?

Wind Considerations
WINDSOCK

WIND

Takeoffs and Landings should always occur into the wind. This allows for: • better performance • and increased aircraft controllability.

What if the winds are calm?
DOWNWIND BASE CROSSWIND

FINAL

UPWIND

Follow other traffic, or any procedure set for your airport.

• Enter pattern in level flight, abeam the midpoint of the runway, at pattern altitude. (1,000' AGL) is recommended pattern altitude unless established otherwise.) • Maintain pattern altitude until abeam approach end of the landing runway on downwind leg. • Complete turn to final at least ¼ mile from the runway. • Continue straight ahead until beyond departure end of runway.

General Guidelines

General Guidelines • If remaining in the traffic pattern, commence turn to
crosswind leg beyond the departure end of the runway within 300 feet of pattern altitude. • If departing the traffic pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45° turn (to the left when in a left-hand traffic pattern; to the right when in a right-hand traffic pattern) beyond the departure end of the runway, after reaching pattern altitude. • Do not overshoot final or continue on a track which penetrates the final approach of the parallel runway. • Do not continue on a track which penetrates the departure path of the parallel runway.

General Guidelines

• In the event of an engine failure, announce “emergency” • Aircraft in distress has the right of way – always • Turning around to the runway may not be the best option • That is why, always be ready

Emergency

• Before entering the runway announce your intentions • Look for other traffic • Don’t overtake or rush infront of others • If entering the pattern make a 45 degree entry • Monitor the airport’s frequency from 10 miles • If in doubt, do a 360, extend the leg you are on, or go around

General Rules for Safety/Courtesy

• Light Gun Signals

Presentations

• ATC communication in the pattern • Departing from the pattern • Entering the pattern