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DC MOTOR DRIVES

(MEP 1422)

Dr. Nik Rumzi Nik Idris
Department of Energy Conversion
FKE, UTM
Contents
• Introduction
– Trends in DC drives
– DC motors
• Modeling of Converters and DC motor
– Phase-controlled Rectifier
– DC-DC converter (Switch-mode)
– Modeling of DC motor
• Closed-loop speed control
– Closed-loop speed control - an example
• Torque loop
• Speed loop
• Summary
INTRODUCTION
• DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors
as the prime movers
• DC motor: industry workhorse for decades
• Dominates variable speed applications before
PE converters were introduced

• Will AC drive replaces DC drive ?
– Predicted 30 years ago
– DC strong presence – easy control – huge numbers
– AC will eventually replace DC – at a slow rate
Introduction

DC Motors

• Advantage: Precise torque and speed control
without sophisticated electronics

• Several limitations:
• Regular Maintenance • Expensive
• Heavy • Speed limitations
• Sparking
Introduction

DC Motors
Rotor: armature
windings
Stator: field
windings

•Mechanical commutator Current in
•Large machine employs compensation windings Current out
Introduction
Ra La Lf Rf

ia +
+ if +

Vt ea Vf

_ _ _

di di f
v t = R a ia + L a + ea v f = R f if + L
dt dt

Te = k t φi a Electric torque

e a = k E φω Armature back e.m.f.
Introduction

Armature circuit:
di a
Vt = R a i a + L + ea
dt

Vt = R a Ia + E a

Therefore speed is given by,

Vt R a Te
ω= −
k T φ ( k T φ) 2

Three possible methods of speed control:

Field flux
Armature voltage Vt
Armature resistance Ra
Introduction
Armature voltage control : retain maximum torque capability
Field flux control (i.e. flux reduced) : reduce maximum torque capability
For wide range of speed control
0 to ωbase → armature voltage, above ωbase → field flux reduction

Armature voltage control
Field flux control
Te

Maximum
Torque capability

ωbase ω
MODELING OF CONVERTERS
AND DC MOTOR

POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS

Used to obtain variable armature voltage

• Efficient
Ideal : lossless

• Phase-controlled rectifiers (AC → DC)

• DC-DC switch-mode converters(DC → DC)
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (AC–DC)

ia
ω
+
3-phase Q1
Vt Q2
supply
Q3 Q4 T

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier

+
3-
phase 3-phase
Vt supply
supply

ω

Q2 Q1

Q3 Q4
T
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier

F1 R1

3-phase
supply
+ Va -
R2 F2

ω

Q2 Q1

Q3 Q4
T
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
• Firing circuit –firing angle control
→ Establish relation between vc and Vt

+
iref + curren vc firing α controll
ed Vt
- t circu
contro it rectifier
ller –
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
• Firing angle control linear firing angle control

vt vc vc
= α= 180
180 α vt

Vm v 
Va = cos c 180 
π  vt 

Cosine-wave crossing control

v c = v s cos α

Vm v c
Va =
π vs
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
•Cosine wave–crossing method

•Transient: sampler with zero order hold

converter

T
GH(s)

T – 10 ms for 1-phase 50 Hz system
– 3.33 ms for 3-phase 50 Hz system
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
400

200

0 Output
­200
voltage

­400
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 Control
Td signal
10

5 Cosine-wave
0 crossing

­5

­10
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36

Td – Delay in average output voltage generation
0 – 10 ms for 50 Hz single phase system
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)

• Model simplified to linear gain if bandwidth
(e.g. current loop) much lower than sampling
frequency
⇒ Low bandwidth – limited applications

• Low frequency voltage ripple → high current
ripple → undesirable
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switch–mode converters

T1 ω

+ Q2 Q1

Vt Q3 Q4 T
-
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switch–mode converters

ω

T1 Q1
Q2
D1
Q3 Q4 T
+
T2 Vt
D2 - Q1 → T1 and D2

Q2 → D1 and T2
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switch–mode converters

ω

D1 D3 Q1
T1 T3 Q2
+ Vt -
Q3 Q4 T

T4 D2 T2
D4
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switch–mode converters

• Switching at high frequency
→ Reduces current ripple
→ Increases control bandwidth

• Suitable for high performance applications
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switch–mode converters - modeling

+
Vdc
Vdc

vtri

q
vc
1 when vc > vtri, upper switch ON
q=
0 when vc < vtri, lower switch ON
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters – averaged model

Ttri

vc

q
1 t + Ttri t on
d d=
Ttri ∫ t
qdt =
Ttri

1 dTtri
Vdc
Vt Vt =
Ttri ∫ 0
Vdc dt = dVdc
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters – averaged model
d
1
0.5
0 vc
-Vtri,p Vtri,p

vc
d = 0.5 +
2Vtri,p

Vdc
Vt = 0.5Vdc + vc
2Vtri,p
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

DC motor – small signal model
di a dω m
v t = ia R a + L a + ea Te = Tl + J
dt dt
Te = kt ia e e = kt ω

Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small
perturbations in Vt, ia, ea, Te, TL and ωm
ac components dc components
~
~ d i Vt = Ia R a + E a
v t = ia R a + L a a + ~
~ ea
dt
~ ~
Te = k E ( ia ) Te = k E Ia
~ ~)
e e = k E (ω Ee = k Eω
~)
d(ω
~ ~ ~
Te = TL + Bω + J
Te = TL + B(ω)
dt
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

DC motor – small signal model
Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components
~
~ d i
v t = ia R a + L a a + ~
~ ea Vt(s) = Ia(s)Ra + LasIa + Ea(s)
dt

~ ~ Te(s) = kEIa(s)
Te = k E ( ia )

~ ~)
e e = k E (ω Ea(s) = kEω(s)

~ ~ ~)
d(ω
~
Te = TL + Bω + J Te(s) = TL(s) + Bω(s) + sJω(s)
dt
Modeling of Converters and DC motor

DC motor – small signal model

Tl (s )
-
Va (s ) I a (s ) Te (s ) ω(s )
1 1
kT
+ R a + sL a +
B + sJ
-

kE
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

position speed torque converter
controller controller controller
θ* + ω* + T* +
Motor
- - -

tacho
kT

1/s

• The control variable of inner loop (e.g. torque) can be
limited by limiting its reference value
• It is flexible – outer loop can be readily added or removed
depending on the control requirements
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Design procedure in cascade control structure

• Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest –
largest bandwidth

• The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest –
smallest bandwidth

• Design starts from torque loop proceed towards
outer loops
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Closed-loop speed control – an example
OBJECTIVES:
• Fast response – large bandwidth
• Minimum overshoot
good phase margin (>65o) BODE PLOTS
• Zero steady state error – very large DC gain

METHOD
• Obtain linear small signal model

• Design controllers based on linear small signal model

• Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Closed-loop speed control – an example

Permanent magnet motor’s parameters

Ra = 2 Ω La = 5.2 mH

B = 1 x10–4 kg.m2/sec J = 152 x 10–6 kg.m2

ke = 0.1 V/(rad/s) kt = 0.1 Nm/A

Vd = 60 V Vtri = 5 V

fs = 33 kHz

• PI controllers • Switching signals from
comparison of vc and triangular
waveform
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Torque controller design q
vtri

Torque +
controller
Tc +
Vdc

q kt

DC motor
Tl (s )
Converter
Te (s ) Torque Vdc Va (s ) 1 Ia (s ) Te (s ) - 1 ω(s )
kT
+ controller + R a + sL a + B + sJ
Vtri,peak
- -

kE
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Torque controller design
Open-loop gain
Bode Diagram
From: Input Point  To: Output Point
150

100
kpT= 90
Magnitude (dB)

compensated
50 kiT= 18000
0

­50
90

45
Phase (deg)

0

compensated
­45

­90
­2 ­1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Speed controller design

Assume torque loop unity gain for speed bandwidth << Torque bandwidth

ω* + T* T
Speed 1 1 ω
controller
– B + sJ

Torque loop
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Speed controller
Open-loop gain
Bode Diagram
From: Input Point  To: Output Point
150

100
kps= 0.2
Magnitude (dB)

50
compensated
kis= 0.14
0

­50
0

­45
Phase (deg)

­90

­135 compensated

­180
­2 ­1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency  (Hz)
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Large Signal Simulation results

40

20

Speed 0

­20

­40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

2

1

Torque 0

­1

­2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL – DESIGN EXAMPLE

SUMMARY
Speed control by: armature voltage (0 →ωb) and field flux (ωb↑)

Power electronics converters – to obtain variable armature voltage

Phase controlled rectifier – small bandwidth – large ripple

Switch-mode DC-DC converter – large bandwidth – small ripple

Controller design based on linear small signal model
Power converters - averaged model
DC motor – separately excited or permanent magnet

Closed-loop speed control design based on Bode plots

Verify with large signal simulation