(MEP 1422)
Dr. Nik Rumzi Nik Idris
Department of Energy Conversion
FKE, UTM
Contents
• Introduction
– Trends in DC drives
– DC motors
• Modeling of Converters and DC motor
– Phasecontrolled Rectifier
– DCDC converter (Switchmode)
– Modeling of DC motor
• Closedloop speed control
– Cascade Control Structure
– Closedloop speed control  an example
• Torque loop
• Speed loop
• Summary
INTRODUCTION
• DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors
as the prime movers
• DC motor: industry workhorse for decades
• Dominates variable speed applications before
PE converters were introduced
• Will AC drive replaces DC drive ?
– Predicted 30 years ago
– DC strong presence – easy control – huge numbers
– AC will eventually replace DC – at a slow rate
Introduction
DC Motors
• Advantage: Precise torque and speed control
without sophisticated electronics
• Several limitations:
• Regular Maintenance • Expensive
• Heavy • Speed limitations
• Sparking
Introduction
DC Motors
Rotor: armature
windings
Stator: field
windings
•Mechanical commutator Current in
•Large machine employs compensation windings Current out
Introduction
Ra La Lf Rf
ia +
+ if +
Vt ea Vf
_ _ _
di di f
v t = R a ia + L a + ea v f = R f if + L
dt dt
Te = k t φi a Electric torque
e a = k E φω Armature back e.m.f.
Introduction
Armature circuit:
di a
Vt = R a i a + L + ea
dt
In steady state,
Vt = R a Ia + E a
Therefore speed is given by,
Vt R a Te
ω= −
k T φ ( k T φ) 2
Three possible methods of speed control:
Field flux
Armature voltage Vt
Armature resistance Ra
Introduction
Armature voltage control : retain maximum torque capability
Field flux control (i.e. flux reduced) : reduce maximum torque capability
For wide range of speed control
0 to ωbase → armature voltage, above ωbase → field flux reduction
Armature voltage control
Field flux control
Te
Maximum
Torque capability
ωbase ω
MODELING OF CONVERTERS
AND DC MOTOR
POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS
Used to obtain variable armature voltage
• Efficient
Ideal : lossless
• Phasecontrolled rectifiers (AC → DC)
• DCDC switchmode converters(DC → DC)
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier (AC–DC)
ia
ω
+
3phase Q1
Vt Q2
supply
Q3 Q4 T
−
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier
+
3
phase 3phase
Vt supply
supply
−
ω
Q2 Q1
Q3 Q4
T
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier
F1 R1
3phase
supply
+ Va 
R2 F2
ω
Q2 Q1
Q3 Q4
T
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current)
• Firing circuit –firing angle control
→ Establish relation between vc and Vt
+
iref + curren vc firing α controll
ed Vt
 t circu
contro it rectifier
ller –
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current)
• Firing angle control linear firing angle control
vt vc vc
= α= 180
180 α vt
Vm v
Va = cos c 180
π vt
Cosinewave crossing control
v c = v s cos α
Vm v c
Va =
π vs
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current)
•Steady state: linear gain amplifier
•Cosine wave–crossing method
•Transient: sampler with zero order hold
converter
T
GH(s)
T – 10 ms for 1phase 50 Hz system
– 3.33 ms for 3phase 50 Hz system
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current)
400
200
0 Output
200
voltage
400
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 Control
Td signal
10
5 Cosinewave
0 crossing
5
10
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36
Td – Delay in average output voltage generation
0 – 10 ms for 50 Hz single phase system
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current)
• Model simplified to linear gain if bandwidth
(e.g. current loop) much lower than sampling
frequency
⇒ Low bandwidth – limited applications
• Low frequency voltage ripple → high current
ripple → undesirable
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
T1 ω
+ Q2 Q1
Vt Q3 Q4 T

Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
ω
T1 Q1
Q2
D1
Q3 Q4 T
+
T2 Vt
D2  Q1 → T1 and D2
Q2 → D1 and T2
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
ω
D1 D3 Q1
T1 T3 Q2
+ Vt 
Q3 Q4 T
T4 D2 T2
D4
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
• Switching at high frequency
→ Reduces current ripple
→ Increases control bandwidth
• Suitable for high performance applications
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters  modeling
+
Vdc
Vdc
−
vtri
q
vc
1 when vc > vtri, upper switch ON
q=
0 when vc < vtri, lower switch ON
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters – averaged model
Ttri
vc
q
1 t + Ttri t on
d d=
Ttri ∫ t
qdt =
Ttri
1 dTtri
Vdc
Vt Vt =
Ttri ∫ 0
Vdc dt = dVdc
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters – averaged model
d
1
0.5
0 vc
Vtri,p Vtri,p
vc
d = 0.5 +
2Vtri,p
Vdc
Vt = 0.5Vdc + vc
2Vtri,p
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
DC motor – small signal model
di a dω m
v t = ia R a + L a + ea Te = Tl + J
dt dt
Te = kt ia e e = kt ω
Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small
perturbations in Vt, ia, ea, Te, TL and ωm
ac components dc components
~
~ d i Vt = Ia R a + E a
v t = ia R a + L a a + ~
~ ea
dt
~ ~
Te = k E ( ia ) Te = k E Ia
~ ~)
e e = k E (ω Ee = k Eω
~)
d(ω
~ ~ ~
Te = TL + Bω + J
Te = TL + B(ω)
dt
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
DC motor – small signal model
Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components
~
~ d i
v t = ia R a + L a a + ~
~ ea Vt(s) = Ia(s)Ra + LasIa + Ea(s)
dt
~ ~ Te(s) = kEIa(s)
Te = k E ( ia )
~ ~)
e e = k E (ω Ea(s) = kEω(s)
~ ~ ~)
d(ω
~
Te = TL + Bω + J Te(s) = TL(s) + Bω(s) + sJω(s)
dt
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
DC motor – small signal model
Tl (s )

Va (s ) I a (s ) Te (s ) ω(s )
1 1
kT
+ R a + sL a +
B + sJ

kE
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Cascade control structure
position speed torque converter
controller controller controller
θ* + ω* + T* +
Motor
  
tacho
kT
1/s
• The control variable of inner loop (e.g. torque) can be
limited by limiting its reference value
• It is flexible – outer loop can be readily added or removed
depending on the control requirements
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Design procedure in cascade control structure
• Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest –
largest bandwidth
• The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest –
smallest bandwidth
• Design starts from torque loop proceed towards
outer loops
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Closedloop speed control – an example
OBJECTIVES:
• Fast response – large bandwidth
• Minimum overshoot
good phase margin (>65o) BODE PLOTS
• Zero steady state error – very large DC gain
METHOD
• Obtain linear small signal model
• Design controllers based on linear small signal model
• Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Closedloop speed control – an example
Permanent magnet motor’s parameters
Ra = 2 Ω La = 5.2 mH
B = 1 x10–4 kg.m2/sec J = 152 x 10–6 kg.m2
ke = 0.1 V/(rad/s) kt = 0.1 Nm/A
Vd = 60 V Vtri = 5 V
fs = 33 kHz
• PI controllers • Switching signals from
comparison of vc and triangular
waveform
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Torque controller design q
vtri
Torque +
controller
Tc +
Vdc
–
−
q kt
DC motor
Tl (s )
Converter
Te (s ) Torque Vdc Va (s ) 1 Ia (s ) Te (s )  1 ω(s )
kT
+ controller + R a + sL a + B + sJ
Vtri,peak
 
kE
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Torque controller design
Openloop gain
Bode Diagram
From: Input Point To: Output Point
150
100
kpT= 90
Magnitude (dB)
compensated
50 kiT= 18000
0
50
90
45
Phase (deg)
0
compensated
45
90
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Speed controller design
Assume torque loop unity gain for speed bandwidth << Torque bandwidth
ω* + T* T
Speed 1 1 ω
controller
– B + sJ
Torque loop
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Speed controller
Openloop gain
Bode Diagram
From: Input Point To: Output Point
150
100
kps= 0.2
Magnitude (dB)
50
compensated
kis= 0.14
0
50
0
45
Phase (deg)
90
135 compensated
180
2 1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (Hz)
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL
Large Signal Simulation results
40
20
Speed 0
20
40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
2
1
Torque 0
1
2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL – DESIGN EXAMPLE
SUMMARY
Speed control by: armature voltage (0 →ωb) and field flux (ωb↑)
Power electronics converters – to obtain variable armature voltage
Phase controlled rectifier – small bandwidth – large ripple
Switchmode DCDC converter – large bandwidth – small ripple
Controller design based on linear small signal model
Power converters  averaged model
DC motor – separately excited or permanent magnet
Closedloop speed control design based on Bode plots
Verify with large signal simulation