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An Introduction

VICTOR V. GERALDE
Agriculturist II/Administrator
PNFTC, Barili, Cebu
Problems

a. Disturbance in plant physiology causes
increase in host susceptibility
b. Accumulation of toxic substances in the
food chain
c. Human health is greatly affected
d. Chemical fertilizers also lead to the
reduction in beneficial microorganisms
efficacy
e. Pollution of ground water
f. Reduction in soil fertility and production
Problems

g. Reduction in nutrient elements in
produced agricultural products
h. Reduction of shelf life of produced
vegetables and fruits
i. Increased problems on post harvest
losses
History

1924 – Prof. Rudolf Steiner of
Germany, in his lectures,
correlates the plant and
agriculture with the other global
and environmental relationships
and powers.

1970 – IFOAM, the International
Federation of Organic Agriculture
Movements, published the first
complete set of organic
regulations.
History

24 June 1991 – the first Official
Laws which deal with organic
agriculture were issued and
published in the Official Journal
of the Europian Community

2000 – USA issued its National
Organic Program outlining the
regulations how to produce
organic products.

2002 – Japan issued the Japan
Agriculture Standards for
organic production.
However, production of
organic products must
be based on certain
rules of target
markets.
What is Organic Farming?
● It is not easy with organic farming.
Organic farming involves a
process.
● A production system that avoids or
largely excludes the use of
synthetically compounded
fertilizers, pesticides, growth
regulators, and livestock additives.
● Activities are mainly based on
internationally accepted
protocols.(International Federation
of Organic Agriculture Movements,
IFOAM)
What is Organic Farming?
Organic farming systems rely upon
crop rotation, crop residue, animal
manures, legumes, green
manures, off-farm organic wastes,
mechanical cultivation and
mineral-bearing blocks.
● It also relies on aspects of
biological control to maintain soil
productivity, to supply plant
nutrients and to control insects,
weeds and other pests.
Maintaining Soil Fertility and
Biological Activity

● Cultivation of legumes, green
manures
● Incorporation in the soil of organic
material, composted or not,
farmyard manure
Maintaining Soil Fertility and
Biological Activity

● For compost activation, appropriate
microorganisms or plant-based
preparations maybe used
● Biodynamic preparations from
stone meal, farmyard manure or
plants may also be used
Pests, diseases and weeds should
be controlled by any one or a
combination of the following
measures:

Flame weeding
Natural enemies including release
of predators and parasites
Mulching and mowing
Pests, diseases and weeds should be
controlled by any one or a combination
of the following measures:
● Choice of appropriate species and
varieties, appropriate rotation
programs, mechanical cultivation
● Protection of natural enemies of
pests through provision of favourable
habitat, such as hedges and nesting
sites, ecological buffer zones which
maintain original vegetation to house
pest predators, diversified
ecosystems
Pests, diseases and weeds should
be controlled by any one or a
combination of the following
measures:

Grazing animals
Mechanical control such as traps,
barriers, light and sound
Steam sterilization
Biodymanic preparations
Principles in Organic
●Agriculture
The Principle of Health – Organic
Agriculture should sustain and
enhance the health of soil, plant,
animal and human as one and
indivisible.
● The Principle of Ecology – Organic
Agriculture should be based on living
ecological systems and cycles, work
with them, emulate them and help
sustain them.
Principles in Organic
●Agriculture
The Principle of Fairness – Organic
Agriculture should build on
relationships that ensure fairness with
regard to the common environment
and life opportunities.
● The Principle of Care – Organic
Agriculture should be managed in a
precautionary and responsible manner
to protect the health and well-being of
current and future generations and the
environment.
Organic Certification
Center of the Philippines
(OCCP)
The only body authorized and
accredited by the Philippine
Department of Agriculture to certify
organic products in the country
● Needs 3-6 months to complete the
inspection of organic farms before
it can issue a Certificate which
costs USD 297 and is valid only for
1 year.
Conversion Period of Farms
Full seasonal crops = after 2
years
Perennial crops = after 3
years
For virgin farmlands = after 1 year
The Organic Agriculture
Industry

Total Organic Area (Asia) = 4.1
Million hectares with almost
300,000 farmers.
● Asian market for organic food is
valued at USD 750 Million.
The Organic Agriculture
Industry
The Organic Agriculture industry in
the Philippines is still in its infancy
stage with very little reliable data
on its domestic market.
● Certified organic products include
rice, vegetables, sugar, banana and
coconut.
The Organic Agriculture
Industry

Exported organic products include
muscovado sugar, banana chips,
coconut cooking oil, virgin coconut
oil, dessicated coconut and dried
banana leaves
The Organic Agriculture
Industry

Organic market in the Philippines is
growing at a significant rate of 10-
20% annually.
● Prices of organic products are 20-
30% higher
BOTANICAL PESTICIDES
a. Atis (Anona squamosa) – Pulverize the
seeds and mix with water. Use as spray
against aphids, ants and other insects.
b. Chrysanthemum – Grind the dried
flowers. Mix with clay loam soil and
water. Spray against a wide range of
insects. Proportion will be 6-7
tablespoons of dried ground flower to 1
gallon of water.
BOTANICAL PESTICIDES

c. Tubli (Derris sp.) – Pound the fresh bark
and rods and extract the juice with water.
Mix 6 tablespoons of juice to 3-4 liters of
water. It makes an effective insect spray.
d. Madre de cacao (Glirieidia sepium) –
Extract the juice from leaves and stems.
Mix with water and spray against insects.
Fresh stems with leaves can be placed
between plants to deter insects.
BOTANICAL PESTICIDES

e. Makabuhay (Tinosporo rumphi) – Pound
the root, stem and leaves to extract the
juice. Mix with water. Use spray against
aphids, flies, moths, worms and other
insects.
f. Tomato – Boil the stems and leaves of
tomato in water. Cool it. Spray against
caterpillars and black or green flies. This
will also serve to deter future attack.
BOTANICAL PESTICIDES

g. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) – Boil the
midribs and stems in water for a few
minutes or soak for 3-4 days. Let it cool.
This is an effective spray against
numerous insect pests.
h. Red pepper – Pound several red pepper
in water and drain. Mix the solution with
water and spray to target pests
Others

a. Soap and water spray – Mix 3 tbsp of
soap flakes in 1 gallon water. Spray
against insects.
b. Wood ash – Spray wood ash around the
plant roots to control root maggots in
radish, onions, cabbage and other
brassicas. Encircle plants with a 3-4
inch wide trench, 1-2 inches deep and
fill this with wood ash to discourage
snails slugs, and cutworms.
SALAMAT!