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Beliefs and Attitudes
of Attitude ► Relationship between attitude, behavior, cognition, affect and object ► Consumer beliefs & marketing implications ► Understanding attitude thru attitude models
model ► Multi-attribute attitude model ► Fishbein model ► Behavior-Intention model ► Attitude-toward-an-admodel
Beliefs result from cognitive learning. ► Beliefs are the knowledge and inferences that a consumer has about objects, their attributes, and their benefits provided.
Consumer Beliefs About Product Attributes
Objects are the products, people, companies, and things about which people hold beliefs and attitudes. Benefits are the positive outcomes that attributes provide to the consumer. Attributes are the characteristics of an object a. Intrinsic attributes b. Extrinsic attributes
Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors
Three types of beliefs: Object-attribute belief Attribute-benefit beliefs Object-benefit beliefs
Forming Beliefs among Objects, Attributes, and Benefits
Attribute benefit belief Benefit
Object attribute belief
Object Benefit Belief
Consumer Beliefs and Managerial Implications
Consumer’s product-attribute beliefs may not match the reality. Halo effect is a source of consumer misperception. When consumers perceive that one product is good or bad on one attribute, they assume that it is also good or bad on another attribute Positioning, differentiation, and segmentation strategies can be based on brand’s attributes Analysis of attributes and benefits also affect promotion strategies Consumers with knowledge process information differently from novices. Managers should carefully determine the expertise of their target market before they decide to advertise a brand by presenting attribute information, benefit attribution, or a combination of the two.
Consumer’s general assessment of the significance of an attribute for products or services of a certain type Attribute importance is directly influenced by the amount of attention consumers pay to specific attributes Four elements determine the amount of attention directed to an attribute: Characteristics of message recipient: Consumer’s needs and values Consumer’s self-concept Characteristics of the message: Making an ad that pertains to one product attribute highly concrete and vivid may direct consumer’s attention to that attribute and enhance perceived importance.
Factors that influence response-opportunity of recipients determine the extent to which a person must possess information about the attribute. Response opportunity is increased when information about the attribute is repeated and when consumer is not distracted from processing information about the attribute The characteristics of the product. Perceived Quality Research indicates that a new attribute increases the perceived quality for a low quality brand more so than for a high quality brand Irrelevant attribute can raise consumer’s evaluation of the brand if the attribute is unique to the brand.
Price as an Attribute
► ► 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ►
Price is one of the most important attributes evaluated by the consumer. Product price can have either positive or negative influence on consumers. Researchers have identified seven dimensions of price attribute, five negative and two positive: Negative Dimensions: Value conscious – the extent to which consumers are concerned with ratio of product quality to price. Price conscious – the extent to which consumers focus exclusively on paying low prices Coupon Prone – the extent to which consumers respond to a purchase offer that includes a coupon Sale prone - the extent to which consumers respond to a purchase offer that includes a temporary reduction in price Price mavens - the extent to which consumers become sources of information to others about prices Positive Dimensions Price – quality relationship Prestige Sensitivity - the extent to which consumers form favorable perceptions of the price attribute based on their sensitivity to other consumers’ perceptions of the status signaled by higher prices
A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
What are Attitudes?
attitude is directed at an “object” ► Attitudes are a learned predisposition ► Attitudes have consistency ► Attitudes occur within a situation
A Simple Representation of the Tri-component Attitude Model
The Tri-component Model
The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.
► Affective ► Conative
A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.
Four Basic Attitude Functions
Utilitarian Function ► The Egodefensive Function ► The Valueexpressive Function ► The Knowledge Function
Functions of attitudes
The Utilitarian Function People express feelings to maximize the rewards and minimize punishment they receive from others. Attitude guides behavior to gain positive reinforcement and avoid punishers. Some attitude towards product is developed on the basis whether these products provide pleasure or pain. Ads that stress straight forward product benefit ( Drink, “Diet Coke just for the taste of it”) appeal to utilitarian function
Clorox Uses A Utilitarian Appeal
Functions of Attitude
The Ego Defensive Function: (self esteem function) To protect people from basic truths about themselves or from harsh realities of life. Smokers who hold positive attitude toward products that promise to help a man project macho image (e.g. Marlboro) may be appealing to insecurities about their own masculinity.
Suave Uses Ego Defensive Appeal
Functions of Attitudes
Knowledge Function Some attitudes are the result of a need for order, structure, or meaning. Through this function people’s attitude form a frame of reference by which they interpret the world. The knowledge function helps to explain some of the effects of Brand loyalty . (“Bayer wants you to know about pain relievers”)
A Knowledge Appeal
Functions of Attitudes
Value Expressive Function Refers to how people express their central values to others. This is also called social identity function. The expression of attitudes may help an individual define his or her self concept to others. Highly relevant to life style analyses where consumers cultivate a cluster of activities, interests and opinions to express a particular identity. “What sort of a man reads playboy?”
AC Delco Uses a ValueExpressive Appeal
Two different value expressive appeals
Direct Formation of Beliefs, Attitudes, & Behaviors
belief formation corresponds to the decision-making perspective and cognitive learning. ► The direct formation of attitudes is linked to the experiential perspective. ► The direct formation of behavior is linked to the behavioral influence perspective. (Operant conditioning and modeling)
Forming Attitudes Directly
conditioning/associative learning--positive affect is attached to object ► Mere exposure--frequent exposure to stimulus increases liking for it. Derived from Butterfly effect. ► Moods--mood at the time of exposure to object influences feelings about object.
Directly Forming Behavior
environmental forces can directly influence behavior, such as from the design of the physical environment. ► Operant conditioning can influence behavior without the formation of beliefs or attitudes.
Hierarchies of Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors
Hierarchies of Beliefs, Attitudes, And Behavior High Involvement Standard Learning Hierarchy Beliefs – Affect – Behavior Low Involvement hierarchy Beliefs – Behavior – Affect
Experiential/ impulse Zajonc’s Model Behavioral Influence Hierarchy
Experiential hierarchy Affect – Behavior – Belief Behavior – Belief - Affect Behavior - Feel - Belief
Promotional Strategies based on the type of consumer purchase process
Buying process High involvement Possible promotional Strategies Emphasize developing product attribute and product benefit beliefs through cognitive learning procedures. Can stress print advertisement and personnel selling. Help create affect through product demonstration and advertising using classical conditioning Emphasize developing product-attribute beliefs through repetition of simple messages. Tie point of purchase displays to advertising. Place product displays in high traffic areas Emphasize the fun and feelings that can be obtained by experiencing the product or services. Emphasize creating affect through classical conditioning of positive feelings towards the product Use sales promotion techniques, such as sweepstakes, rebates, samples or coupons
Multiattribute Attitude Models
Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
Multi-attribute Attitude Models
attitude-toward-object model attitude-toward-behavior model
Attitude is a function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations
The attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself
Behavior intention model
A comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes
Predicting Consumer Attitudes
models identify how consumers in high-involvement situations (i.e. standard hierarchy of effects) combine their beliefs about product attributes to form attitudes about various brand alternatives, corporations, or other objects.
The Fishbein Attitude-toward the Object Model
The model has three components of attitude: Salient beliefs people have about an object (Ao). Usually consists of the attributes that are important to the consumer. Object attribute linkages or the probability that a particular object has an important attribute. This is assessed by asking consumers questions like,” How likely is it that this university has high academic reputation: Extremely unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Extremely likely How likely is it that this university has good library resources Extremely unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Extremely Likely Evaluation of each attribute. The evaluation rating provides an assessment of the liking or disliking of the salient attribute i. How bad/ good is it for a university to have high academic reputation Very bad -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Very good How bad/ good it is for the university to have library resources ii. Very bad -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Very good N Ao =
A 0 = the overall attitude toward an object ► bi = the strength of the belief concerning whether object o has some particular attribute ► ei = Evaluation of liking or disliking of attribute ► N = the number of beliefs
University A ATTRIBUTE Academic reputation Proximity to home Cost Library facilities Score ei +3 +1 -2 +2 bi 6 10 2 7 bi x ei 18 10 -4 14 38 bi 8 2 8 9 bi x ei 24 +2 -16 18 28
Consumption situations could vary, and this will influence the strength of the attitude–behavior relationship. Evidence suggests that consumer’s attitudes toward a given brand can actually vary depending on situations Time usually elapses between when consumers form attitudes and when they are ready to act on those attitudes. During that time, many variables, both expected and unexpected, can intervene to also influence behavior A distinction must be made between attitude towards object and attitude towards behaving in a certain way toward those objects. The consumer’s attitude towards some type of behavior is influenced by his evaluation of the perceived consequences (positive and negative) of taking such actions. Therefore, those attitudes are more relevant for predicting consumer’s action Consumers are often influenced by their perceptions of what others will think of their actions. Therefore, even though a consumer may have a favorable attitude towards making some purchase, he may refrain from doing so because of his perception that others who are important to him may not approve of his action
Fishbein Behavioral Intentions Model
► ► 1. 2.
Person’s behavior is a function of his intentions to behave in a certain manner and other intervening variables Two factors are seen to influence the person’s intention to act in a certain manner: Attitude towards the object Subjective norms which are the individual’s perceptions of how others who are important to him will react to such behavior Subjective norms are determined by the consumer’s beliefs about the reactions of others regarding the intended behavior, and motivations to comply with their standards for behavior This relationship is expressed in the equation as: B approximately = BI = w 1 (A B) + w2 ( SN) Where B = the person’s actual behavior, which is approximately equal to BI BI = his intentions to behave in in a specific manner A B = his attitude towards the object SN = subjective norms regarding this behavior W 1 , W 2 = weights representing the relative influence of A B and SN respectively, on the behavioral intention
Behavioral Intention Model
i 1 n
Where AB = the individual’s overall attitude towards the object bi = The person’s belief that performing that behavior results in consequences i
e i = Persons Evaluation of consequences i
n = the number of relevant behavioral beliefs SN =
SN = The individual’s subjective norms bi = the normative belief that reference group or person I thinks he should or should not perform the behavior
mi = his motivation to comply with the thoughts of the referent i
Salient beliefs about the object
Relationship between components of behavioral intentions model
Attitude towards the Object
Beliefs about the perception of others
Motivation to comply
Subjective norms about behavior
Figure 8.4 A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action
Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes Evaluation of the outcomes Beliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behavior Motivation to comply with the specific referents
Attitude toward the behavior
Part 1 Behavioral intention Model
University A Attribute
Academic reputation Proximity to home Cost Library facilities Score
University B ei bi ei xbi +18 +10 -4 14 38 bi 8 2 8 9 ei xbi +24 +2 -16 18 28
+3 6 +1 10 -2 2 +2 7
Part 2: Behavioral Intention Model
Identify the salient referents My salient referent thinks that: I should not -1 -2 -3 0 +1 +2 +3 Should 2. Motivation to comply with How much do you want to do what your salient referent thinks you should do - Not at all ( 0) Slightly ( +1) Moderately ( +2) Strongly (+3)
Calculation of Subjective Norms
normative belief Product ( bi mi) (mi) +2 +2 +2 +3 A -2 +2 +6 +3 +9 Wi = .4 University A = .4(38) + .6 (+9) = 20.6 W2 = .6 University B = .4(28) +.6(21) = 23.8 B +4 +6 +2 +9 +21
Referents Father School Principal Friend Professional A -1 +1 +3 +1 B +2 +3 +1 +3
A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.
A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
Exposure to an Ad Judgments about the Ad (Cognition) Feelings from the Ad (Affect)
Beliefs about the Brand
Attitude toward the Ad
Attitude toward the Brand
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