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CASTING PROCEDURE & CASTING DEFECTS

A Seminar by Dr.Narayan

INTRODUCTION

1905-LOST WAX PROCESS

1933-Replacement of CO-Cr for gold in RPD


1950-Development of resin veneers for gold alloys 1959-Porcelain fused to metal technique 1971-The Gold standard 1980-ALL-CERAMIC TECHNOLOGIES 1999-Gold alloy as alternative to Pd-Based alloys

Wax Elimination & Heating

For gypsum bonded investment


500C for hygroscopic technique. 700C for thermal expansion technique.

Phosphate bonded

700C to 1030C.

Advisable to begin burn-out procedure when the mould is still wet.

Hygroscopic Low Heat Technique

Obtains compensation expansion from 3 sources.


37C water bath expands wax pattern. Warm water entering the investment mold from top adds some hygroscopic expansion.

Thermal expansion at 500C provides needed thermal expansion.

Advantages of Low Heat Technique


Less investment degradation.

Cooler surface for smoother castings.


Convenience of placing molds directly in 500C furnace.

Care taken for sufficient burnout time.


The molds should remain in furnace for atleast 60 min. Back pressure porosity great hazard in low heat technique.

Standardized hygroscopic technique was developed for alloys with high gold content; the newer noble alloy may require slightly more expansion. This added expansion may be obtained by making 1 or more of following changes.
1.
2. 3.

Increasing water bath temperature to 40C.


Using two layers of liners. Increasing burnout temperature to a range of 600C to 650C.

High-Heat Expansion Technique

Depend almost entirely on high-heat burnout to obtain the required expansion, while at the same time eliminating the wax pattern. Additional expansion:

Slight heating of gypsum investments on setting. Thus expanding the wax pattern.

Water entering from wet liner adds a small amount of hygroscopic expansion to the normal setting expansion.

Gypsum Investments

Fragile and require use of metal ring.


Slowly heated to 600C to 700C in 60 mins. and held for 15 to 30 min. at the upper temperature. Rate of heating:

Smoothness.
Overall dimension of investment. Too rapid heating.

Cracking of investment (outside layer expands >center section). Radial cracks interior to outward. Casting with fins or spines.

Common with cristobalite investment.

Investment decomposition and alloy contamination is related to the chemical reaction between the residual carbon and sulfate binder.
Calcium sulfate does not decompose unless heated above 1000C. Reduction of calcium sulfate by carbon takes place rapidly above 700C.

CaSO4 + 4C CaS + 4CO 3CaSO4 + CaS 4CaO + 4SO2

This reaction occurs when gypsum investment are heated above 700C in presence of carbon. SO2 as a product of this reaction contaminates gold castings and makes them extremely brittle.

Sulfur gases are generated when investment is heated above 700C.


After

casting temperature reached Casting should be made immediately.


Sulfur contamination.
Rough surface on casting.

Improved investment formulations.

Gypsum investment with considerable amount of cristobalite.

Few investments may be directly placed into furnace at final burnout temperature

held for 30 min. & cast.

Factors affecting size and smoothness.


Design of the furnace. Proximity of the mold to the heating element.

Availability of air in the muffle.

Phosphate Investments

Obtain their expansion from following sources.


Expansion of the wax pattern. Setting expansion (because of liquid used). Thermal expansion

Phosphate investments much harder and stronger than gypsum investments. Burnout temperature range from 750C to 1030C. 315C rapid heating held at the upper temperatures for 30 mins.

2 stage heating:

Placed directly in furnace at top temperature. Held for 20-30 min. then cast

Elimination of metal ring and liner to save more time.

Metal ring replaced with plastic ring i.e. tapered.

Time allowable for casting

Investment contracts thermally as it cools.


When thermal expansion / high heat technique used. Investment loses heat after heated ring removed from furnace and mold contracts.

Low heat technique


Temperature gradient not great. Thermal expansion not important to shrinkage compensation.

High heat technique


Great temperature gradient. Thermal expansion important.

Burnout temperature on a fairly steep portion of thermal expansion curve.

Burnout temperature on thermal expansion plateau.

Casting Machines

Alloys are melted in one of the 4 following ways:

In a separate crucible by a torch flame, and cast centrifugally. Electrically by a resistance heating or induction furnace. Centrifugally by motor or spring action. By induction heating. Centrifugally by motor or spring action. Vacuum arc melted. Cast by pressure in argon atmosphere.

Molten metal may be cast by air pressure, by vacuum, or both.

Torch Melting of Noble Alloy


Melted by placing on inner sidewall of crucible.

Fuel used - Natural or artificial gas and air.


- Oxygen air and acetylene. Non-luminous brush flame with different combustion zones should be obtained.

Mixing zone Combustion zone. Reducing zone.

Oxidizing zone.

At proper casting temperature the molten alloy is light orange and tend to spin or follow the flame. Alloy should be approx. 38C to 66C above liquidus temperature.

The casting should be made when proper temperature is reached No more 30 secs should be allowed to elapse between the time the ring is removed from the oven and the molten alloy is centrifuged into the the mold

When the alloy is molten,slide the crucible against the ring,sprinkle flux over the metal
Hold the casting arm so that the pin drops away Release the arm and rotate till it comes to rest

Use of flux for gold alloy

It is desirable to use flux for gold alloy to


Minimize porosity To increase the fluidity of the metal Film of flux formed on surface of alloy prevents oxidation

Reducing fluxes: Reduce oxides the present to free metal and oxygen. Excellent in cleaning old alloy. Eg; 1.Powdered charcoal

2.Fused Borax powder ground with Boric acid powder

CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

Torch melting centrifugal casting machine


Casting machine spring wound from 2 to 5 turns Alloy is melted by a torch flame in a glazed ceramic crucible attached to the broken-arm of casting machine. Torch flame is generated from a gas mixture of propane and air. Machine is released and spring triggers the rotation motion. As the metal fills the mold, a hydrostatic pressure gradient develops along the length of the casting.

Broken arm feature accelerates the initial rotational speed of the crucible and casting ring.

The pressure gradient from the tip of the casting to the bottom surface is quite, sharp and parabolic in form, reaching zero at the button surface.
Pressure gradient before solidification reaches 0.21 to 0.28MPa (30 to 40 psi) at the tip of casting. Greatest rate of heat transfer to the mold is at the high pressure end of the gradient (tip of the casting).

SPRING-WOUND CASTING MACHINE WITH ELECTRIC RESISTANCE FURNACE

Electrical Resistance-Heated Casting Machine

Current is passed through a resistance heating conductor, and automatic melting of the alloy occurs in a graphite or ceramic crucible. Advantages:

For metal ceramic prosthesis. Base metals in trace amounts that tend to oxidize on overheating. Crucible located flush against casting ring.

Carbon crucibles should not be used in melting of:


High Pd Pd-Ag Ni-Cr Co-Cr

INDUCTION MELTING CASTING MACHINES

WATER COOLED INDUCTON COIL

VERTICAL CRUCIBLE POSITOINED WITHIN INDUCTION COIL

Induction Melting Machine

Alloy is melted by induction field that develops within a crucible surrounded by water cooled metal tubing.
The electrical induction furnace is a transformer in which an alternating current flows through the primary winding coil and generates a variable magnetic field in the location of the alloy to be melted in crucible. Once the alloy reaches casting temperature in air/vacuum it is forced into mold by centrifugal force by air pressure, or by vacuum. More commonly used for melting base metal alloys.

Direct Current Arc Melting Machine

Direct current arc is produced between two electrodes- the alloy and water cooled tungsten electrode.
The temperature between the arc exceeds 4000C. Has high risk of overheating.

Vacuum or Pressure Assisted Casting Machine

Molten alloy is heated to casting temperature drawn into the evacuated mold by gravity or vacuum and subjected to additional pressure to force the alloy into the mold.
Used for titanium and titanium alloys. Under vacuum arc heated-argon pressure casting machine.

Casting Crucibles

Clay.
Carbon. Quartz. Zirconia-alumina.

Cleaning the casting

Quenching: ring is removed and quenched in water as soon as the button exhibits a dull red glow Purpose of quenching

All the intermediate phases are changed to a disorderly state and ductility is increased Soft granular investment that is easily removed

Devesting or Sand blasting

Casting is held in an sand blasting machine to clean the investment from the surface. The blasting materials used are:

Sand shells Recycled aluminium oxide with pressure of 100psi Garnet

Pickling

Removal of oxide residues of carbon by heating the discoloured casting in an acid Advantages of HCl:

Aids in removal of residual investment as well as oxide coating

Disadvantages:

Likely to corrode laboratory metal furnishings


Fumes are health hazard

Method of cleaning

Place the casting in test tube or dish and pour acid over it

Other methods: Heating the casting and then dropping into the pickling solution

Finishing and polishing : Brown or White AlO2 stones are used Cleaning : Using a hemostat, steam or clean framework

CASTING DEFECTS

Casting is defined as the act of forming an object in a mold. The object formed from this procedure is called a casting. Any impressions or irregularities that result in unsuccessful casting which interfere with the fit of the final restoration-basically classified into 4 categories

DISTORTION

SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND IRREGULARITIES


POROSITY INCOMPLETE OR MISSING DETAIL

SURFACE IRREGULARITIES

Air bubbles Water films

Rapid heating,under heating and prolonged heating


Liquid/powder ratio Temperature of alloy

Casting pressure
Composition of investment Foreign bodies

Impact of molten alloy


Pattern position Carbon inclusons

BLACK COATED NOBLE METAL ALLOY

POROSITY

SOLIDIFICATION DEFECTS

LOCALISED SHRINKAGE POROSITY MICROPOROSITY

TRAPPED GASES

PINHOLE POROSITY GASINCLUSIONS SUBSURFACE POROSITY

RESIDUAL AIR

LOCALISED SHRINKAGE POROSITY

Premature termination of flow of molten metal Sprue freezes before feeding complete to casting proper Retain heat because of bulk and heat center of ring

Small chill set sprues

MICROPOROSITY

OCCURS BY SOLIDIFICATION SHRINKAGE IN FINE GRAIN CASTINGS OCCUR FROM RAPID SOLIDIFICATION IF MOLD /CASTING TEMPERATURE IS TOO LOW

SUCK BACK POROSITY

Occlusoaxial/incisoaxial line angle Hotspot

Flaring the point of sprue attachment


Lowering casting temperature by 30 degrees

PINHOLE POROSITY AND GAS INCLUSIONS

ENTRAPMENT OF AIR DURING SOLIDIFICATION SPHERICAL CONTOUR


LARGE SPHERICAL POROSITIES CAUSED BY GAS OCCLUDED BY A POORLY ADJUSTED TORCH FLAME

SUB SURFACE POROSITY

SIMULTANEOUS NUCLEATION OF SOLID GRAINS AND GAS BUBBLES AT THE FIRST MOMENT THAT THE ALLOY FREEZES AT THE MOLD WALLS
RATE OF MOLTEN METAL THAT ENTERS THE MOLD

BACK PRESSURE POROSITY


Large concave depressions Inability of air in mold to escape through the pores in the investment Proper burnout,adequate mold and casting temperature,high casting pressure,proper l/p ratio

INCOMPLETE CASTING

MOLTEN ALLOY PREVENTED FROM COMPLETELY FILLING MOLD Insufficient venting and high viscosity

Incomplete elimination of wax residues


Shiny margins caused by CO left by residual wax Temperature of alloy should be raised so that its viscosity and surface tension are lowered.

ROUNDED INCOMPLETE MARGNS

INCOMPLETE CASTING

CONCLUSION

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