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SQL

Meenakshi Arora

SQL
It has 9 commands common to all RDBMS
CREATE, DROP, ALTER for Tables. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE for records. GRANT, REVOKE for permission. SELECT for query.

SQL was initiated by IBM and is now controlled by ANSI (American National Standard Institute). Also pronounced as SEQUEL. It is command language for communication with ORACLE/MSSQL Server. When an SQL statement is entered it is stored in the part of memory called SQL Buffer and remains there until a new SQL statement is entered.

Features of SQL
It can be used by a range of users including those with little or no programming experience. It is a non-procedural language. It reduces the amount of time required for creating and maintaining system. It is English like language

Rules of SQL
SQL statements starts with a verb (SQL action word) eg. SELECT. Each verb is followed by number of clauses eg. FROM, WHERE, HAVING. A space separates clause eg. DROP TABLE. Comma (,)separates parameters without clause. A semicolon (;) is used to end SQL statement. Characters and date literals must be enclosed in single quotes. Numeric values can be represented by simple values 0.39, -34, 01991. Scientific notations 2E5 = 2 * 105

SQL Delimiters
Addition + Subtraction Multiplication * /**/ Division / Relational =,>,< Expression or List () Terminator ; Item Separator , Character String delimiter Quote Identifier Exponential ** Concatenation || Comment -- ,

DDL (Data Definition Language)

Components of SQL

DML (Data Manipulation Language) DCL (Data Control Language)

CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, COMMENT. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CALL, LOCK TABLE COMMIT- Save the work. SAVE POINT Identify a point in a transaction to which you can later on rollback. ROLLBACK restore database to the original since the last COMMIT. SET TRANSACTION Change transaction option like what rollback segment to use. GRANT/ REVOKE Grant or take back permission to or from the users.

DQL (Data Query Language) SELECT retrieve data from the database

Data types
CHAR (size) store characters maximum upto 255. VARCHAR (size) / VARCHAR2(size) store alphanumeric data maximum upto 2000 / 4000. DATE To represent Date and Time DD-MM-YY. NUMBER(P,S) Precision (P) maximum length of data , Scale (S) determines number of places to the right of decimal. LONG Variable length character strings containing upto 2 GB. CLOB/ BLOB Character Large Objects/ Binary Large objects to store images, pictures, sounds, video, txt files etc.

CREATE
Syntax CREATE TABLE <Table name> (<columnName1> <DataType>(<size>), (<columnName2> <DataType>(<size>)); Example:

create table bank_sys ( branch_no varchar2(10), name varchar2(20));


Output- Table Created

INSERT
Syntax INSERT into Table (<column1>, <column2>) values (data1 , data2); INSERT into Table_name VALUES ( value1, value2,value3,..) Example:

Output- 1 Row Created

insert into Bank_sys (Branch_no, name) values ('1018' , 'Pune');

EXAMPLE

insert into Bank_sys values (1018 , 'Pune');


Output- 1 Row Created

insert into Bank_sys (Branch_no, name) values ('1018' , 'Pune');


Output- 1 Row Created

Syntax SELECT * from Tablename; Example:

SELECT

select * from Bank_sys;

SELECT columnname from Tablename; Example:

select Branch_no from Bank_sys;

SELECT * from Tablename where <condition>; Example:

select * from Bank_sys where Branch_no = '1011';

Eliminating Duplicate rows with SELECT


Syntax SELECT DISTINCT * from <Tablename> Example:

select distinct * from Bank_sys ;

Syntax SELECT DISTINCT <columnname1>, <columnname2> from <Tablename> Example:

select distinct Branch_no from Bank_sys

Example of select
P_Id 1 2 3 LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen FirstName Ola Tove Kari Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23 Storgt 20 City Sandnes Sandnes Stavanger

Persons table We want to select the content of the columns named last name and first name From the persons table Queries :- Select LastName, FirstName from persons
LastName
Hansen Svendson Pettersen

FirstName
Ola Tove Kari

SELECT DISTINCT Example


Persons table
P_Id 1 2 3 LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen FirstName Ola Tove Kari Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23 Storgt 20 City Sandnes Sandnes Stavanger

Now we want to select only distinct values from the column named City From the table persons Queries:- Select Distinct City from Persons

City Sandnes Stavanger

Where clause example


Syntax:SELECT column_name From table_name Where column_name operator value
P_Id 1 2 3 LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen FirstName Ola Tove Kari Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23 Storgt 20 City Sandnes Sandnes Stavanger

Select *from Persons Where City= sandnes

P_Id 1 2

LastName Hansen Svendson

FirstName Ola Tove

Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23

City Sandnes Sandnes

Operators Allowed in the WHERE Clause


Operator = <>, != > < Equal Not equal Greater than Less than Description

>=
<= BETWEEN LIKE

Greater than or equal


Less than or equal Between an inclusive range Search for a pattern

IN

If you know the exact value you want to return for at least one of the columns

Sorting Data in Table


Syntax SELECT * from <Tablename> order by <columnname1> , <columnname2> <[sort order]>; Example:

select * from Bank_sys order by name ; select * from Bank_sys order by name desc; select * from Bank_sys order by name asc;

Example:The Persons table SELECT * FROM Persons ORDER BY LastName


P_Id 1 4 3 LastName Hansen Nilsen Pettersen FirstName Ola Tom Kari Address Timoteivn 10 Vingvn 23 Storgt 20 City Sandnes Stavanger Stavanger

Svendson

Tove

Borgvn 23

Sandnes

Example:The Persons table SELECT * FROM Persons ORDER BY LastName DESC


P_Id 2 3 4 1 LastName Svendson Pettersen Nilsen Hansen FirstName Tove Kari Tom Ola Address Borgvn 23 Storgt 20 Vingvn 23 Timoteivn 10 City Sandnes Stavanger Stavanger Sandnes

AND & OR Operators


AND operator displays a record if both the first condition and second condition is true. OR operator displays a record if either the first condition or the second condition true.

AND Operator EXAMPLE


The Persons table SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Tove' AND LastName='Svendson'
P_Id 2 LastName Svendson FirstName Address Tove Borgvn 23 City Sandnes

OR Operator Example
SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Tove OR FirstName='Ola'
P_Id 1 2 LastName Hansen Svendson FirstName Ola Tove Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23 City Sandnes Sandnes

Combining AND & OR


SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE LastName='Svendson' AND (FirstName='Tove' OR FirstName='Ola')

P_Id 2

LastName Svendson

FirstName Tove

Address Borgvn 23

City Sandnes

DELETE
Syntax DELETE FROM <TableName> Example:

Delete from Bank_sys;

Syntax DELETE FROM <TableName> where <condition> Example:

Delete from Bank_sys where branch_no = 1011;

UPDATE table
Syntax UPDATE <TableName> SET <columnName1> = <Expression1> , <columnName2> = <Expression2>; Example:

UPDATE Bank_sys set name = Mumbai;

Syntax UPDATE <TableName> SET <columnName1> = <Expression1> , <columnName2> = <Expression2> where <condition>; Example:

UPDATE Bank_sys set name = Head Office where name = Delhi;

Update persons table


P_Id 1 2 3 4 5 LastName gupta sharma suri gupta bedi

Example
FirstName sumit gitika neena rohit kiran Address 54, ashok vihar 1234/8, rohini 678/14, gurgaon 126/21, noida City Delhi Delhi Haryana Uttar pradesh

Query:Update persons Set Address= 54/9 Ashoka appartment, rohini, City= delhi Where lastname = bedi and firstname= kiran

output
P_Id 1 LastName gupta FirstName sumit Address 54, ashok vihar 1234/8, rohini 678/14, gurgaon City Delhi

2 3

sharma suri

gitika neena

Delhi Haryana

4
5

gupta
bedi

rohit
kiran

126/21, noida
54/9 Ashoka appartment, rohini

Uttar pradesh
Delhi

Syntax ALTER Table <Tablename> ADD (<newcolumnname> <Datatype> (<size>), <newcolumn2> <Datatype2>(size)); Example:

ALTER Table

ALTER TABLE Bank_sys add (address varchar(40));

Syntax ALTER TABLE <Tablename> DROP COLUMN <Columnname>; Example:

ALTER TABLE Bank_sys DROP COLUMN name;

Syntax ALTER TABLE <Tablename> MODIFY ( <Columnname> <Newdatatype> (<size>)); Example:

ALTER TABLE Bank_sys Modify (Branch_no varchar(15));

Problem

Create table
Create the following table Client- client_no, name, Address, City, State. Product_master- p_no, pname, sellprice, costprice. Sales_Master- salesman_name, salesman_no, address, city, state, remarks, salary.

Query
Find out names of all the clients. Retrieve the entire content of the client table. Retrieve the list of name, city and state of all the clients. Find the name of salesman who have salary equal to 3000 Rupees. Find the name of clients who are located in Mumbai.

Example
Display all details of student. List name of student whose name begin with r. List details of student who having highest marks in class. List details of student whose name that have A and M. Display name and marks of student.