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1) Internal drive to satisfy an

unsatisfied need 2) Stimulus of behavior

Motivation Theories
Content Theories: focus on the internal needs

and desires that initiate, sustain and eventually terminate behavior.

WHAT motivates someone

Process Theories: seek to explain HOW behavior

is initiated, sustained and terminated

Content Theories
Maslows Hierarchy of Need Alderfers ERG Theory Herzbergs 2-Factor Theory McClellands Learned Needs Theory

Frustration: occurs when needs can not be met

Satisfaction: occurs when needs are met

Despair: occurs when there is frustration without


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Stresses two fundamental premises:
Human beings are wanting creatures whose needs

depend on what they already have. (You need what you DONT already have)
Peoples needs are arranged in a hierarchy

Maslo w
5th level: Self realization and

fulfillment 4th level: Esteem and Status 3rd level: Affection and social activity 2nd level: Safety and security 1st level: Basic physiological needs

Alderfers ERG Theory

1. 2. 3.

Only 3 levels to the hierarchy: Existence needs: material and physical needs Relatedness needs: all needs that involve other people Growth needs: all needs involving creative efforts and/or productive contributions

Herzbergs 2-Factor Theory

Starts with the questions of what satisfies and

dissatisfies people about their work Assumes the answers to those questions are key to understanding motivation Job Satisfaction consists of two separate and independent dimensions:
Satisfiers or motivators Dissatisfiers or maintenance factors

Dissatisfiers/Maintenance Factors
Presence is not motivational. Absences

causes dissatisfaction

Policies Salary Interpersonal relationships Job security Work conditions Status Technical supervision Personal life

Not unhappy if they are absent; willing to work to

get them
Achievement Recognition Advancement The work itself Possibility of growth Responsibility

Mc Clellands Learned Needs Theory

People learn their needs through life

experience 3 sets of needs:

Need for Achievement: need to excel Need for Power: need to control or

influence others Need for Affiliation: need to associate with others. Form interpersonal relationships

Process Theories
Focus on how

individuals expectations and preferences for outcomes associated with their performance actually influence performance.

Vrooms Expectancy Theory

Vroom theorized that people are not only driven

by their needs, but they make choices about what they will and will not do to fulfill their needs based on 3 conditions:

Vrooms Conditions
Person must believe that effort to perform at a

particular level will make the desired performance or behavior more likely Desired performance or behavior must lead to some concrete outcome or reward Person must value the outcome