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TROUBLE SHOOTING

Series 4

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Optimization Work Flow Monitor Network Performance

Network Statistic

Drive Test

Trouble Ticket

Propose Action Plan

No

Is Performance OK?

Yes
Parameter, Configuration and Hardware Changes

Implement Action Plan

Optimization Work Flow


STEP 1: Identify Problem

Traffic Statistics

Customer Complaints

What Problem ?

Drive Test

Alarm

Optimization Work Flow


STEP 2: Analyze Problem

Call Statistics

Any activity?

How to solve?

Alarm / Hardware

Drive Test

Optimization Work Flow


STEP 3: Implement Solutions

Parameter Change

Re-configuration

Change what?

Hardware Change/ Antenna tilting

Software Upgrades

Optimization Work Flow


STEP 4: Monitor Performance

Call Statistics

Customer Feedback

Change Success?

Alarm

Drive test

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Drive Test
Standard for Drive Test

Define Route drive test Specific drive test measurement tools Time period for Drive Test Summary drive test results

Drive Test
Standard for Drive Test
Used external ANT outdoor mounted on rooftop of drive test
car. Trace mode drive test Drive test same direction in each route

Drive Test
Define Route drive test
Main road level 1 Normal road level 2 Route in city

Drive Test
Specific drive test measurement tools
TEMS investigation version 2.0.4 or higher version. External ANT 0 dB(i) Gain with cable and connector to Ericsson

R520
Log files from TEMS investigation will be process by GIMS (post processing software) to Mapinfo table .

Drive Test
Time period for Drive Test
For optimization perform drive test after launched in each batch
For trouble shooting drive test

Summary drive test results.


Drive Test after launched in each batch
Print out RXlevel and RXQUAL in whole region. Graph or table of %RXleve >= -84 dBm compare with base line in each route. Graph or table of %RXqual <= 4 compare with base line in each

route.

Summary drive test results.


Trouble shooting drive test
The report in each route will show detail as the following :
Print out RXlevel, RXQUAL and mark problem point. Summary sheet
-how many problem that found in that route. -which type of problem ( Missing neigbouring ,Drop call, HO fail, interference, bad quality). -give suggestion how to solve and due date.

Example summary sheet added in Appendix. (Demo) Remark: If changed parameter to solve problem must be re-drive test for verify results.

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item


BM1 Call process data BM data Hardware data

BM

Signaling data

AM/CM BAM
HUB OMC SERVER

WS1

WSn

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item


MTP Measurement Function BSC Measurement Function

Cell Measurement Function


Power-control Measurement Call Drop Measurement

SCCP Measurement Function


A-interface Operation and management statistic

Site Initialization Measurement A-interface Equipment


Function BSC Cell Broadcast Measurement Function Maintenance statistic A-interface Trunk Board message statistic CPU Measurement Function

Demo

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item


BTS Initialization Defined Adjacent Cell

Measurement
Cell Broadcast Statistic Outgoing Inter-cell handover

Measurement Function
Receiving Quality Measurement Function

Measurement Function
Incoming Inter-cell handover Measurement Function Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurement Function

Receiving Level Measurement


Function Link Balance Measurement Function LAPD Link Measurement Function

GPRS Measurement Function Cell Frequency Scan Demo

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Limitation of statistics
1. Traffic statistics task occupies some of the system resources. If too many

tasks are implemented simultaneously or a task is implemented too


frequently, too much resource of BSC system will be used. Therefore, there are restrictions to the number and period of traffic statistics task in BSC system: At most 200 tasks can be created in each BM (Basic Module). At most 3000 subtasks can be created in each BM.
A traffic statistics task is divided into subtasks according to the traffic statistics objects in the task. The number of traffic statistics objects of a traffic statistics task equals to the number of the subtasks contained in this task. The number of subtasks of a BM is the total number of the subtasks of all tasks created in this BM. For example, if a BM is fully configured to supports 128 cells, there will be 128 subtasks

after creating a measurement task of cell performance for "all cells in the module".

Limitation of statistics
A task can have at most 60 different initial indices.
For example, BSC Measurement Function has more than 120 primitive indices. Cell
Measurement Function has more than 220 primitive indices. At least three tasks are to be created to measure all indices of BSC Measurement Function. At least four tasks are to be created to measure all indices of Cell Measurement Function.

Minimum traffic statistics cycle: 15 minutes


If the statistic cycle is too short and the task results are too many, the system load will increase. Therefore, the statistic cycle should not be shorter than 15 minutes. The

default setting is 30 minutes. The maximum statistic cycle is 1440 minutes.

Limitation of statistics
At most 16 cells can be selected in each Outgoing/Incoming inter cell

handover measurement function task


There is a limitation about the communication between Host and BAM; So, Outgoing inter cell handover measurement function and Incoming inter cell handover measurement function only support 16 cells in one task.

Limitation of statistics
2. Statistic items that cannot be registered more than once
Do not register the statistic items concerning maximum/minimum values (e.g.
Maximum num. of busy TCHs) in multiple tasks. Otherwise, the data of these indices may be incorrect. The BSC traffic statistics indices concerning maximum/minimum values and their traffic statistics function types are listed in the following

Limitation of statistics
BSC indices concerning maximum/minimum values

Traffic statistics function type


CPU Measurement Function Cell Measurement Function Cell Measurement Function

Index concerning maximum/minimum value


Peak percentage of CPU occupation Maximum num. of busy SDCCHs Maximum TCH queue length

Cell Measurement Function


Power-Control Measurement Function Power-Control Measurement Function percentage

Maximum num. of busy TCHs


Maximum distance between MS and BTS Maximum downlink power duration

Power-Control Measurement Function


GPRS Related Measurement Function GPRS Related Measurement Function

Maximum uplink power duration percentage


Max num. of available PDCH Min num. of available PDCH

Limitation of statistics
3. Do not modify the time of BAM and OMC Server.
Since the management and time of traffic statistics are closely related, if the time
is modified, the result of this cycle that outputted may be incorrect.

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Traffic Statistics Analysis


Analysis process
First we shall analyze and compare the sub-item of BSC measurement
function to have a roughly acknowledgement for the whole network. During analyzing, if any important items (such as call drop rate or handover successful rate) are abnormal, we shall do some further and detailed analysis

for the corresponding contents.


Analyze the cell with abnormal items (call drop, congestion, handover failure and so on). Use percentage and absolute times (call drop, congestion, handover failure and so on) together to decide whether doing some further analysis or not.

Incoming handover

Traffic Statistics Analysis

Low handover successful rate

Outgoing handover

TCH performance

Link Balance

Alarm data

BSC Measurement Function

General method for traffic analysis

High congestion rate

SDCCH performance

Link balance

Alarm data

TCH performance

High call drop rate

Link balance

Call drops

TCH performance

Alarm data

Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop


TCH call drop analysis ( Analysis diagram )

Cell with high call drop rate

Handover measurement

Call drop measurement

Cell performance statistics

Alarm and hardware fault

Outgoing-cell handover success rate Incoming inter cell handover successful rate

Average uplink level at TCH call drops


Average down link level at TCH call drop Average uplink quality at TCH call drop Average downlink quality at TCH call drop Average TA value at TCH call drop

Call drop times

Interference band Causes of call drop

Handover failure and re-establish failure

Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover


Handover analysis (Analysis diagram)
Low Handover Success Rate

TCH Measurement Function

Handover Measurement Function

Alarm (Clock), Hardware Fault

Incoming-cell Failure

Outgoing-Cell Failure

Cause of Failure in BSC

Incoming Inter cell Handover Measurement Function

Outgoing Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function

1.Illegal Channels 2.Illegal Carrier 3.Illegal TA 4.Timer out 5.no available channel 6.others

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Call drop is usually caused by the following:
Radio link fault. During the communication, messages can not
be received correctly. T3103 counter gives no response after timeout Other system faults (for example, the matching between BSC timer and MSC timer)

Timers that may cause call drops (BSC timer):


T3103: Time counting from sending up HANDOVER CMD start

to receive HANDOVER CMP end, If it is timeout.(20s)


T3109: Time counting from sending up CHAN REL to receive REL IND end. If it is timeout.(5s)

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Analyze the causes of the fault of radio links. The causes can be:
Interference
Internal interference, external interference and the equipment interference

Poor coverage
Coverage insufficient, isolated island, uplink/downlink unbalance

Improper parameter setting


radio link timeout counter, SACCH multi-frame number, handover, power control etc.

Equipment problem (Antenna---Feeder---CDU---TRX)

Clock problem
Transmission problem

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Call drop types
Edge call drop: low receiving signaling strength, large TA.
Short distance call drop: low receiving signal strength and small TA. Bad Qual call drop: high receiving signal strength and poor quality. Sudden call drop: before call drop, the call is normal then call drop happened suddenly.

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Edge call drop
Causes
MS is out of cells effective coverage area. Island phenomenon caused by over shooting or missing neighbor. Stand along site.

Solutions
Add new site to guarantee the effective continuous coverage. Add the necessary neighbor. Adjust antenna height and antenna downtilt, use high gain antenna Modify some parameters : SACCH multi-frames , Radio link timeout counter, handover threshold, handover statistic time, etc..

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Short distance call drop
Causes
Poor coverage caused by complicated terrain structure or high dense building.

Solutions
Increase EIRP. Adjust antenna direction and downtilt, make the main lobe point to high traffic area. Adjusting call drop related parameters.

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


BQ call drop( high signal strength)
Causes
High transmission bit error rate (BER). Uplink or downlink interference.
Interference caused by Repeater. Interference caused by Radar or other similar equipment. Interference caused by improper frequency planning. Self-interference caused by BTS.

Solutions
Try to find the external interference. Optimize frequency planning. Adjust antenna system, avoid island. Avoid transmission BER.

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Equipment problem (TRX, power amplifier, tower amplifier, etc.)
Problem description
In TCH measure function: many TCH seizure failures due to A interface problem. In call drop measurement function: many call drops due to ground links. In TCH measurement function: many TCH seizure failures due to equipment failure.

Disposing process
Monitor transmission and board alarms (TC board failure, A interface PCM synchronization alarm, LAPD link disconnected, TRX alarm); analyze whether transmission is disconnected or some boards have fault (for example, the TRX cant work).

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


Overall process for call drop analysis
Find out cells with high call drop rate.
Classify the call drop according to the character. Analyze the cells traffic load and total call drop times. In the call drop measurement function :analyze the call drop performance. Check the interference band.

NoteFirst, we shall know the type of the call drop.

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


TCH Call Drop items
N:TCH call drop
A: TCH lost radio connections (connection failure) B: TCH lost radio connections (error indication) C: TCH seizure failures due to terrestrial link failure (A-bis) D: TCH drop during Handover and preemption (No item in OMC) N=A+B+C+D

Trouble shooting--Call Drop


SDCCH call drop
Refer to TCH call drop analysis.

Note: The cause and mechanism of SDCCH call drop are almost the same as TCH.

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Handover failure analysis
Causes of handover failure
Improper handover parameters. Hardware fault (TRX board fault). Congestion

Interference
Coverage Clock fault (Internal clock, external clock)

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Handover failure analysis
Disposing process
Find out the cells with low handover successful rate. Find the out the cells with high handover failures. Compare the incoming cell handover failures and outgoing cell

handover failures.
Register the task to measure the incoming cell handover and outgoing cell handover. Find out handover failure relation (failure to all the neighbor cells or

parts of the neighbor cells).

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Improper parameter settings
Disposing process
Check whether the handover parameter threshold such as TA, BQ and handover function switch are suitable or not. Check whether the successful TCH seizures for handover are much

more than successful TCH seizures for call. If handover divide by


call is larger than 3, then it indicates that there maybe has PingPong handover. Check the parameter setting and adjust them (layer setting, inter-lay handover hysteresis, inter-cell handover hysteresis,

PBGT threshold, etc.).


Check whether the average signal strength is low When the handover happens. If it is, it indicate the edge handover threshold are too low.

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Hardware fault
Problem description
The target cell has active channels but when applying for the channels, get NACK or TIMEOUT message. TCH availability is abnormal.

If the call drop rate and congestion rate are high, the equipment
may have some fault.

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Hardware fault
Disposing process
Monitor transmission and board alarms (TC board failure, A interface PCM sync alarm, LAPD link disconnected, power amplifier board, HPA, TRX alarm board, and CUI/FPU alarm).

Analyze whether the transmission is disconnected or the boards


have some fault (for example: the TRX is damaged). Check whether there is a clock alarm.

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Congestion
Objects needed to be analyzed
Cells with low incoming handover successful rate. Neighbor of the cell with low incoming handover successful rate.

Analysis process
In incoming inter-cell handover Measurement function: check whether many handover failures caused by congestion. Low incoming handover successful rate: check the cells traffic . Low outgoing handover successful rate: check the neighbor cells traffic.

Trouble Shooting--Handover
Congestion
Disposing process
Adjust the cells coverage (adjust BTS transmitting power, RXLEVEL_ACCESS_MIN, RACH access threshold, and the antenna downtilt and height).

Adjust parameters (CRO, load handover parameters, cell priority and


handover parameters). Expand or adjust TRX configuration between high and low traffic cell.

Topics
Optimization Work Flow Drive Test Traffic statistics
Brief Introduction Limitation of statistics Traffic statistics analysis

Trouble shooting
Call Drop Handover SDCCH Congestion

Trouble ShootingSDCCH Congestion


SDCCH congestion
Main causes
Transmission fault and Board fault Excessive SDCCH location updating in location area boundary

More traffic
Improper setting of system parameters Interference

Trouble ShootingSDCCH Congestion


Transmission fault and Board fault
Problem description
Massive

location updates happen suddenly.

Solution: Check transmission Check hardware

Trouble ShootingSDCCH Congestion


Excessive SDCCH location updating in location area boundary
Problem description
The The

border of different location area is the street. border of different location area is at the high traffic area.

Solution: Modify location area selection Modify CRH (Cell Reselect Hysteresis) Modify the parameters of periodical area updating.(T3212)

Modify the frequent handover problem of the dual-frequency


network Add more SDCCH channel

Trouble ShootingSDCCH Congestion


More traffic

Problem description
Many

location updates happen at the border of different location

areas. Solution: Hardware fault in adjacent cell cause to suddenly traffic increase

Traffic balance
Reduce CRO to reduce C2 Add more SDCCH channel

Trouble ShootingSDCCH Congestion


Improper setting of system parameters

Solution: Increase RACH access threshold (for coping with interference) Decrease maximum resend times MS MAX retrans Increase extended transmission timeslots appropriately T3101 3s (Used to limit the duration of immediate assignment.) T3122 10s Wait indication time, defines the MS waiting time before the
MS attempts another channel request after IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
REJECT.

Trouble ShootingSDCCH Congestion


Interference
Problem description
RACH threshold is low. At the same time, there is some interference in the system, which will bring a lot of illusory SDCCH channel requests. Disposing process Properly set the RACH threshold Dispose interference

Thank You for Attention