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TQM is a comprehensive management system which: • Focuses on meeting owners’/customers’ needs. It reduces the defects of organization and increases the productivity.What is Total Quality Management Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950's and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980's. . • Focuses on the way tasks are accomplished. • Recognizes role of everyone in the organization. by providing quality services at a reasonable cost. • Views organization as an internal system with a common aim. • Focuses on continuous improvement. TQM is preferred method to increase the user satisfaction.
Learning and TQM .
Analysis of the processes is the key to quality improvement. and enabling leadership by managers at all levels It is essential to continuously improve the quality of products and services that we provide to our owners/customers . consistent.TQM beliefs Following are the universal Total Quality Management beliefs: Owner/customer satisfaction is the measure of quality Everyone is an owner/customer. and employee involvement are critical sources of quality improvement ideas and innovations Sustained total quality management is not possible without active. a skilled use of analytical tools. visible. Measurement. Quality improvement must be continuous.
Objectives of TQM Objectives of TQM • Process improvement • Defect prevention • Priority of effort • Developing cause-effect relationships • Measuring system capacity • Developing improvement checklist and check forms • Helping teams make better decisions • Developing operational definitions • Separating trivial from significant needs • Observing behaviour changes over a period of time .
.Companies who implemented TQM Wal-Mart : The expansion of Wal-Mart Stores has been successfully accomplished with the application of the principles of TQM to their Design and Construction process. The initiatives for their TQM process were obtained from their customers by using a simple questionnaire. Bechtel : TQM was started in 1987 and has recently been reorganized into CCI (an acronym for Commitment to Continuous Improvement).
Motorola's fundamental objective is Total Customer Satisfaction. . They have won the Baldrige award and are corporate leaders in TQM. Motorola: Motorola has a successfully working TQM process.
• Failure to solicit worker input. • Haphazard approach .Pitfalls to be avoided in TQM Many companies have started on the road to quality but failed to achieve success due to several factors. • Commitment in only one department. • Short-term commitment . • Measure success and guide program. . • Failure to acquire the services of a competent statistician. these are listed as follows: • Lack of top management support. • Lack of middle management support.
• Funding failure . • No market research.• Over dependence on computerized quality control. • Overselling hourly workers. • Adversarial management . • No testing of incoming materials.
Control charts .Process improvement tools Process improvement tools 1. Check sheets 3. Cause-and-effect diagrams 6. Histograms 4. Pareto diagrams 5. Flow charts 2. Scatter diagrams 7.
.g.Flow charts • • • • • • • Process map identifies the sequence of activities or the flow in a process. Very successfully implemented in various organizations.1. Can also pinpoint places where quality-related measurements should be taken. Objectively provides a picture of the steps needed to accomplish a task. e. Helps all employees understand how they fit into the process and who are their suppliers and customers. Also called process mapping and analysis. Motorola reduced manufacturing time for pagers using flow charts.
2. . • Data sheets use simple columnar or tabular forms to record data. to generate useful information from raw data. • Additionally.Check sheets • Special types of data collection forms in which the results may be interpreted on the form directly without additional processing. further processing generally is necessary. including information such as specification limits makes the number of nonconforming items easily observable and provides an immediate indication of the quality of the process. However.
Example check sheets Patient Transport Problem Sheet Area: Ward 3b Type Equipment broken Patient not ready Not enough staff Patient having another exam etc. Period: June 1996 Tally IIIII IIIII II III IIIII IIIII II Subtotal 5 7 3 12 .
or bins. .Histogram A histogram is a table/graph that sorts data into pre-specified categories.3.
• It is a histogram of the data from the largest frequency to the smallest.Pareto diagrams • Based on the 85-15 Pareto distribution.4. . • Helpful in identifying the quality focus area.
(Helps in the diagnostic journey.5.) . • Helps in identifying root causes of the quality failure.Cause-effect diagrams • Also called fishbone diagrams (because of their shape) or Ishikawa diagrams.
Statistical correlation analysis used to interpret scatter diagrams. .Scatter diagrams • Graphical components of the regression analysis. • Often used to point out relationship between variables.6.
7.Run charts and Control charts • Run chart: Measurement against progression of time. • Control chart: Add Upper Control Limit and Lower Control Limit to the run chart. .
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