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Bandwidth Metrics and Measurement Tools

Xin, Lu High-Performance Computing Group Computer Science University of Windsor

Bandwidth Metrics
NMWG divide bandwidth into four submetrics:  Bandwidth Capacity  Achievable Bandwidth  Available Bandwidth  Bandwidth Utilization

Other Metric Terms

– Throughput is the same as achievable bandwidth.

Bulk Transfer Capacity (BTC)
– Defined by RFC 3148 BTC = data_sent / elapsed_time – The throughput of a persistent TCP transfer.

Each of these metrics can be used to describe the entire path (end-to-end) as well as path‟s link (hop-by-hop)characteristics.

the protocol and operating system used.Bandwidth Capacity vs. Achievable Bandwidth  Capacity is the maximum amount of data per time unit that the link or path has available. given the current utilization.  Achievable bandwidth is the maximum amount of data per time unit that a link or path can provide to an application. and the end-host performance capability and load. (Throughput ) Reference: [2] . when there is no competing traffic.

at high-speed networks.  If a path consists of several links. While the link with the minimum unused capacity limits the achievable bandwidth. Achievable Bandwidth Cont. i. the link with the minimum transmission rate determines the capacity of the path.  . hardware configuration or software load on the end hosts actually limit the bandwidth delivered to the application.Bandwidth Capacity vs.e.

Available Bandwidth vs.  Utilization is the aggregate capacity currently being consumed on a link or path.  Available Bandwidth = Bandwidth Capacity – Bandwidth Utilization Reference: [2] . Bandwidth Utilization  Available bandwidth is the maximum amount of data per time unit that a link or path can provide. given the current utilization.

Available Bandwidth  Available Bandwidth is the amount of usable bandwidth without affecting cross-traffic... limiting other traffic. taking considerable time and overhead.BTC vs. the BTC is measured by sending as much packets as possible. whereas.  BTC is simulating “steady state”– persistent flow. RFC 3148 : A Frame Work for Defining Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity Metrics . FOR MORE INFO.

and what BTC measured is the variant of achievable bandwidth. Available Bandwidth Cont..BTC vs.  The BTC definition assumes an “ideal TCP implementation”.. actually. this doesn‟t exist. FOR MORE INFO. RFC 3148 : A Frame Work for Defining Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity Metrics .

. however. as it can‟t extract any data pass through it.  Passive measurement is appreciated.  Passive measurement tools monitors the passing traffic without interfering.Passive vs. Active measurement  Active measurement means that the tool actively sends probing packets into the network. less reliable than active.

UDP echo or TCPFIN.Receiver-based vs.  Sender-based (echo-based) techniques force the receiver to reply the ICMP query.  . Senderbased techniques Receiver-based (end-to-end) techniques usually use the onedirection TCP stream to probe the path bandwidth.

 Clock needn‟t synchronized at two ends.  Round-trip is much more possibility influenced by cross-traffic than that of one-way delay  Response packets may come back through a different path . Disadvantage:  ICMP and UDP echo packets usually be rate-limited or filtered out by some routers.Sender-based technique Advantage:  Flexible deployment.

Disadvantage:  Difficult to deployment.Receiver-based technique Advantage:  More accurate than sender-based technique.  The clock have to be synchronized at two ends. .

Bandwidth Measurement Technology  Packet Dispersion technology – packet pair and packet train – Self-Loading Periodic streams (SLOPS)  Variable Packet Size (VPS) technology – VPS even/odd – Tailgating technique .

We refer the bottleneck link to the first case. it’s also can refer to the link with minimum available bandwidth.  Measuring the dispersion can infer the bottleneck link bandwidth capacity. .  The packets will reach the sink dispersed by the transmission delay of the bottleneck links if there is no cross traffic. Note: Bottleneck link can refer to the link with smallest transmission rate.Packet Dispersion Technique  Sender sends two same-size packets back-to-back from source to sink.

Packet Dispersion Technique Cont. Bottleneck bandwidth = packet size/ t .

.  If sender sends the packets as one observation sample more than two.  Tools usually apply robust statistical filtering techniques to find valid samples.Packet Dispersion Technique Cont. called packet train.

Packet pair vs.  Packet train can reduce the limitation of clock resolution.  Sophisticated tools apply both methods in their implementation.  Packet train can be used to measure the bottleneck link that is multichannel while packet pair can‟t deal with. i. Pathrate . packet train  Packet train is more likely to be interfered by cross traffic than packet pair.e.

Tool Name bprobe cprobe Netest Active/ Method.. Path/Perlink Path Path Path Packet pair Packet pair Packet pair ICMP ICMP UDP Bandwidth Capacity Bandwidth utilization Bandwidth capacity Bprobe and cprobe Metrics Passive ology Active Active Active FOR MORE .html Nettest http://www-didc.Packet Dispersion Technique Cont.bu.lbl..

.cs.Dovrolis Pipechar Pathrate http://www.gatech.. packet train UDP UDP Bandwidth capacity Available bandwidth Path Per-link Packet train Sprobe Active Packet pair TCP Bandwidth capacity Path FOR MORE .Packet Dispersion Technique Cont. Pathrate Pipechar Active Active Packet SProbe http://sprobe.

 Compare the difference of successive packets timestamp and their arrival times to infer the available bandwidth.  Rate-adjustment adaptive algorithm to converge to the available bandwidth.Self-Loading Periodic Streams(SLOPS)  Sender sends series of packets to the sink at the rate of larger than the bottleneck link available bandwidth. .  Every packets get a timestamp at sender side.

.edu/fac/ Pathload http://www.Dovrolis .Self-Loading Periodic Streams Cont.Protocol Metrics Passive ology Active SLOPS UDP Available bandwidth Path/Per -link Path FOR MORE INFO. Tool Name pathload Active/ Method.

Variable Packet Size (VPS) Technique  Step1. Upon receiving ICMP.3…n. to Calculate the C=1/ bi – bi-1 . Sender set TTL=1. repeat the process of step1 to 3. estimate the RTT.The minimum RTT of various packets are believed to be the valid sample. b is slope of RTT graph.  Step2. The first link capacity is C=1/b .  Step3. Set the TTL=2. Estimate the RTT multiple times for various size packets. and wait for the ICMP TTL-exceeded packet back. send out the packet.

.VPS technique cont.

Mathematical „trick‟ to improve reliability. . the odd sample of link i+1.e.  For each of the probing sizes. the even sample of link i.  Calculation is based on even-odd samples. i.Even-odd VPS  The VPS probing technique is not altered. divide the set of samples into even and odd numbers.

Mary Baker “Measuring Link Bandwidths Using a Deterministic Model of Packet Delay” ACM SIGCOMM 2000 .e 40 bytes). Phase two: (tailgating phase) The largest possible non-fragmented packet followed by a tailgater which is the smallest possible packet size (i. Reference: Kevin Lai. but for entire path instead of per link.Tailgating Technique Tailgating technique divides into two phrase: Phase one: Like VPS probing. This causes the smaller packet always queue behind the larger packet.

Tailgating Technique cont. The tailgater packet should be queued directly after the large packet on link L. . The tailgater packet should not queued after having passing link L. The large packet should have a TTL field set to L (1…n). The following condition should met:     The large packet should not be queued due to cross traffic.

Loss.emplyees. ICMP Bandwidth Pchar . loss.wellesley. delay Bandwidth capacity.VPS Technology Tool Name bing clink Pchar Active/ Passive Active Active Active Method.Protocol Metrics ology VPS VPS/ even-odd Path/Per -link Path Path Per-link ICMP UDP UDP.fn/reseau/bing.cnam. Loss Bandwidth capacity. delay VPS Bing http://www.html Clink http://rocky.

. n-odd ICMP Bandwidth capacity Bandwidth capacity. delay Per-link Per-link FOR MORE INFO.Protocol Metrics Passive ology Path/Per -link VPS/tail TCP Passive gating Active VPS/eve UDP.VPS Technology Cont. Tool Name Nettimer pathchar Active/ Method. Nettimer .lbl. Pathchar ftp://ftp.

 To some degree. It simulates the TCP of using slow-start algorithm.TCP Simulation and Path Flooding  TCP simulation operates at two mode : UDP/ICMP with low TTL or ICMP echo/reply. both TCP simulation and path flooding are associated with Bulk Transfer Capacity (BTC)metrics.  Path flooding method injects TCP/UDP packets into the net as fast as possible within the specific time. .

Protocol Metrics Passive ology Active Active Active TCP simulation Path/Per -link Path Path Path Path UDP.TCP Simulation and Path Flooding Cont. delay throughput iperf Netperf Active . Tool Name TReno ttcp Active/ Method. flooding UDP Path TCP. flooding UDP Achievable bandwidth Bandwidth capacity. ICMP BTC Path TCP. flooding UDP Path TCP. Loss BTC.

TCP Simulation and Path Flooding . TReno Netperf http://www.nlanr.html ttcp part of OS ftp://ftp.netperf.html Iperf http://dast.

2003. Thilo Kielmann and Martin Swany. Reference : 1. A Hierarchy of Network Measurements for Grid Applications and Services Document (draft) Global Grid Forum NMWG Feb 17.http://www. Les Cottrell. Rody Schoonderwoerd Network Performance Measurement Tools a comprehensive comparison Nov.. 2002 . Richard Hughes-Jones.Bandwidth Measurement Tools Con.caida. 3. Brain 2. Bruce Lowekamp.