You are on page 1of 42

# ELEG 413

Spring 2011
Lecture #1
Mark Mirotznik, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
The University of Delaware
Tel: (302)831-4221
Email: mirotzni@ece.udel.edu
ELEG 413 Engineering Electromagnetics
Instructor: M. Mirotznik, Tel (302)831-4241, mirotzni@ece.udel.edu
Text: Engineering Electromagnetics, Constantine Balanis
http://www.ece.udel.edu/~mirotzni/ELEG413/ELEG413.htm
Office Hours: Tuesday/Thursday 9:00-12:00 in Evans 106

Course Syllabus
1. Review of Vector Calculus and Introduction to EM
2. Electrical Properties of Matter
3. Wave Equation and its Solutions
4. Wave Propagation and Polarization
5. Reflection and Transmission
6. Introduction to Waveguides
7. Introduction to EM Scattering and Radiation
8. Numerical Solution of EM Problems

Homework 10%
Quizzes 10%
Exam 1 20%
Exam 2 20%
Final 40%
Vector Analysis Review:
A
A
a
A a A
A

=
=
a

= unit vector
A a A
A

=
1. Dot Product (projection)
) cos(
AB
B A B A u = ·
 
2. Cross Product
) sin(
AB n
B A a B A u

 
= ×
A a A
A

=
A
B a B
B

=
AB
u
n
a

Orthogonal Coordinate Systems:
2
3
2
2
2
1
2 1
3
3 1
2
3 2
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
u u u
u u u
u u u
u u u
A u u u u u u
A A A A
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A A a A a A a A
+ + =
× =
× =
× =
= + + =
  
  
  
   

3 3 2 2 1 1 u u u u u u
B A B A B A B A + + = ·
 
) (
) ( ) (
1 2 2 1 3
3 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 2 1
u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u u
B A B A a
B A B A a B A B A a B A
÷ +
÷ + ÷ = ×

 
 
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
u u u
u u u
u u u
B B B
A A A
a a a
B A
  
 
= ×
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems:
dl
3 3 2 2 1 1
dl a dl a dl a l d
u u u
  

+ + =
S d

n
a

dS a S d
n

=
3 2 1
dl dl dl dv =
dl
1

dl
2

dl
3

Cartesian Coordinate Systems:
y x z
z x y
z y x
A z z y y x x
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A A a A a A a A
  
  
  
   

× =
× =
× =
= + + =
z z y y x x
B A B A B A B A + + = ·
 
z y x
z y x
z y x
B B B
A A A
a a a
B A
  
 
= ×
x
y
z
Cartesian Coordinate Systems (cont):
dz dy dx dv
dy dx a ds
dz dx a ds
dz dy a ds
dz dy dx dl
dz a dy a dx a l d
z z
y y
x x
z y x
=
=
=
=
+ + =
+ + =

  

2 2 2
Cylindrical Coordinate Systems:
A z z r r
a A A a A a A a A
   

= + + =
| |
dz d rdr dv
dz rd a ds
dz dr a ds
dz rd a ds
dz a rd a dr a l d
z z
r r
z r
|
|
|
|
| |
|
=
=
=
=
+ + =

  

x
y
z
|
r
z
(r,|,z)
Spherical Coordinate Systems:
A R R
a A A a A a A a A
   

= + + =
| | u u
| u u
u
¢ u
| u u
| u u
| ¢
u u
| u
d d dR R dv
d RdR a ds
d dR R a ds
d d R a ds
d R a Rd a dR a l d
R R
R
) sin(
) sin(
) sin(
) sin(
2
2
=
=
=
=
+ + =

  

x
y
z
|
R
(R,u,|)
u
Vector Coordinate Transformation:
z
r
z
y
x
A
A
A
A
A
A
|
| |
| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
1 0 0
0 ) cos( ) sin(
0 ) sin( ) cos(
¢
u
u u
| | u | u
| | u | u
A
A
A
A
A
A
R
z
y
x
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
0 ) sin( ) cos(
) cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) sin(
Assume f(x,y,z) is a scalar field
The maximum spatial rate of change of f at some location
is a vector given by the gradient of f denoted by
| u u
|
| u
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
) sin( R
f
a
r
f
a
R
f
a f
z
f
a
r
f
a
r
f
a f
z
f
a
y
f
a
x
f
a f
R
z r
z y x
  
  
  
Divergence of a Vector Field:
Assume E(x,y,z) is a vector field. The divergence of E is
defined as the net outward flux of E in some volume as the
volume goes to zero. It is denoted by
E

· V
| u
u
u u
|
|
u
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= · V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= · V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= · V
E
R
E
R
E R
R
R
E
z
E
E
r
rE
r r
E
z
E
y
E
x
E
E
R
z
r
z
y
x
) sin(
1
) ) (sin(
) sin(
1
) (
1
1
) (
1
2
2

Curl of a Vector Field:
Assume E(x,y,z) is a vector field. The curl of E is measure
of the circulation of E also called a “vortex” source. It
is denoted by
E

× V
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
| u
| u
|
|
u
| u
u
u
|
E R RE E
R
a R a R a
R
E
E rE E
z r
a a r a
r
E
E E E
z y x
a a a
E
R
R
z r
z r
z y x
z y x
) sin(
) sin(
) sin(
1
1
2
  

  

  

Laplacian of a Scalar Field:
) ( V V · V
Assume f(x,y,z) is a scalar field. The Laplacian is
defined as and denoted by
V
2
V
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
) ( sin
1
) ) (sin(
) sin(
1
) (
1
1
) (
1
| u
u
u
u u
|
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
V
R
V
R
V
R
R
R
R
V
z
V V
r
V
r
r
r r
V
z
V
y
V
x
V
V
Examples:
1. Given the scalar function
z
e y x z y x V
÷
= ) 2 / sin( ) 2 / sin( ) , , ( t t
Find the magnitude and direction of the maximum rate of chance at
location (xo,yo,zo)
2. Determine ) ( V V · V
3. Determine
) ( V V × V
3. The magnetic field produced by a long wire conducting a constant current
Is given by
r
I
a r B
o
|

= ) (
Find B

· V
Basic Theorems:
1. Divergence Theorem or Gauss’s Law
s d E dv E
s v

 
· = · V
}} }}}
2. Stokes Theorem
} }}
· = · × V
c s
l d E s d E
 

) (
Examples:
1. Verify the Divergence Theorem for
z a r a z r A
z r
2 ) , (
2
 

+ =
on a cylindrical region enclosed by r=5, z=0 and z=4
r = 5
z = 0
z = 4
Odds and Ends:
1. Normal component of field
n

E

n
E E n = ·

2. Tangential component of field
t
E E n = ×

Maxwell’s Equations in Differential Form
m
i c
B
D
J J
t
D
H
M
t
B
E
µ
µ
= · V
= · V
+ +
c
c
= × V
÷
c
c
÷ = × V

 

Ampere’s Law
Gauss’s Law
Gauss’s Magnetic Law
s d B
t
l d E
t
B
E
c s

  

·
c
c
÷ = ·
c
c
÷ = × V
} }}
S
C
t
B
c
c

E

Ampere’s Law
}} } }}
· + ·
c
c
= ·
c
c
+ = × V
s c s
s d J s d D
t
l d H
t
D
J H

  

 
t
D
c
c

J

J

H

H

Gauss’s Law
}}} }}
= = ·
= · V
v
tot
s
Q dv s d D
D
µ
µ

tot
Q
D

Gauss’s Magnetic Law
0
0
}}
= ·
= · V
s
s d B
B

B

“all the flow of B entering the
volume V must leave the volume”

CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS
E J
H B
E D
c
 

 
o
µ
c
=
=
=
c=c
r
c
o
=permittivity (F/m)
c
o
=8.854 x 10
-12
(F/m)

µ=µ
r
µ
o
=permeability (H/m)
µ
o
=4t x 10
-7
(H/m)

o=conductivity (S/m)

POWER and ENERGY
J
i

c, µ, o
E, H
V
S
n
i c d i
d
J J J J E
t
E
H eq
M
t
H
E eq
    

+ + = + +
c
c
= × V
÷ =
c
c
÷ = × V
o c
µ
) 2 (
) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 ( eq E eq H · ÷ ·
 
) ( ) 3 (
i c d d
J J J E M H H E E H eq
        
+ + · ÷ · ÷ = × V · ÷ × V ·
take
Using the vector identity
) ( ) ( ) ( B A A B B A × V · ÷ × V · = × · V
0 ) ( ) ( ) 4 ( = + + · + · + × · V
i c d d
J J J E M H H E eq
      
Integrate eq4 over the volume V in the figure
}}} }}}
+ + · + · ÷ = × · V
v
i c d d
v
dv J J J E M H dv H E eq )] ( [ ) ( ) 5 (
      
Applying the divergence theorem
0 )] [ ) ( ) 6 ( = · + · +
c
c
· +
c
c
· + · ×
}}} }}
v
i
s
dv J E E E
t
E
E
t
H
H ds H E eq
   

  
o c µ
POWER and ENERGY (continued)
0 )] [ ) ( ) 6 ( = · + · +
c
c
· +
c
c
· + · ×
}}} }}
v
i
s
dv J E E E
t
E
E
t
H
H ds H E eq
   

  
o c µ
2 2 2
,
2
1
,
2
1
E E E w
t
E
t t
E
E w
t
H
t t
H
H
e m
o o c c µ µ = ·
c
c
=
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
=
c
c
·
c
c
=
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
=
c
c
·
 

0 ] [ ] [ ) ( ) 7 (
2
= + · +
c
c
+
c
c
+ · ×
}}} }}} }}} }}
v v
i
v
e m
s
dv E dv J E dv
t
w
t
w
ds H E eq o
   
| | 0 ] [ ] [ ) ( ) 8 (
2
= + · + +
c
c
+ · ×
}}} }}} }}} }}
v v
i
v
m e
s
dv E dv J E dv w w
t
ds H E eq o
   
0 , 0 ] [
]
2
1
[ , ]
2
1
[
) (
2
2 2
= = = · =
(
¸
(

¸

· × =
}}} }}}
}}} }}}
}}
= =
v
d
v
i i
v
e
v
m
s
s
dv E P dv J E P
dv E W dv H W
ds H E P
o
c µ
 
 
d i e m s
P P W
t
W
t
P + +
c
c
+
c
c
=
Stored magnetic power (W)
Stored electric power (W)
Supplied power (W)
Dissipated power (W)
What is this term?
POWER and ENERGY (continued)
0 , 0 ] [
]
2
1
[ , ]
2
1
[
) (
2
2 2
= = = · =
(
¸
(

¸

· × =
}}} }}}
}}} }}}
}}
= =
v
d
v
i i
v
e
v
m
s
s
dv E P dv J E P
dv E W dv H W
ds H E P
o
c µ
 
 
d i e m s
P P W
t
W
t
P + +
c
c
+
c
c
=
Stored magnetic power (W)
Stored electric power (W)
Supplied power (W)
Dissipated power (W)
What is this term?
P
s
= power exiting the volume through radiation
H E S
  
× =
W/m
2
Poynting vector