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By Jorge Molina & Rodrigo Chávez

• The coil vibrates when the magnet’s field interacts with the coil’s field.SPEAKERS • Uses Electromagnetic Motor • A current is fed to the ends of the coil which creates a magnetic field. • The cone amplifies the sound waves. .

MICROPHONE 1) Sound waves created by your voice. 2) Diaphragm 3) Voice Coil 4) Permanent Magnet 5) Electric Current .

FARADAY’S LAW OF INDUCTION • The electromotive force induced on the coil may be calculated with the following formula: • 𝑉𝑒𝑚𝑓 = • Where: • N = Number of turns • Φ = Magnetic flux density • B = Magnetic Field 𝜕Φ −𝑁 𝜕𝑡 𝑉 . Φ = 𝐵 ∙ 𝑑𝑠 .

MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE COIL • Knowing the current I that goes through the coil. we may calculate the magnetic field on the coil with the following formula: • 𝐵 = μ 𝐼 0 2𝜋𝑟 • Where: • μ0 = Permeability. . • r = radius of the coil.

THE CURRENT INDUCED • It is important to know that a current in a conductor generates a magnetic field. . • Likewise. • The Right-Hand Rule can be used to determine the direction of the current. a magnetic field that changes in time generates a current in a conductor.

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY • A current going through a coil has an Electromagnetic Energy which may be calculated with the following formula. • 𝑊 = 1 𝐿𝐼 2 2 (𝐽) • W = Energy Stored (J) L = Inductance I = Current .

393𝑎 2 𝑛2 9𝑎+10𝑏 • Where: • a = Radius of the coil b = lenght n = Number of turns .INDUCTANCE • The Inductance (L) from the Electromagnetic Energy may be calculated with the following formula: • 𝐿 = 0.

polypropylene. Nomex or paper. • Magnet – AlNiCo (Aluminum-Nickel-Cobalt) or Ceramic (Strontium Ferrite). . • Voice-Coil Cover – paper or aluminum.MATERIALS – TONAL CHARACTER • Cone – Paper. or ceramic (to name a few). titanium. aluminum. Kapton. • Voice-Coil Former – Aluminum.

• This noise may come from a badly tuned radio or from outside noise while listening to your headphones.NOISE • What is noise? • It is undesired sound that distorts the reproduction of any audio signal. .

. • This is also called noise isolation because it “isolates” the listener from outside noise.PASSIVE NOISE REDUCTION (HEADPHONES) • The On-Ear Headphones apply a certain pressure to your ear so that no sound enters your ear while listening to any recording. • This is only a physical method of noise reduction.

• This inverted signal cancels out with the sound that inevitably goes through your headphones.ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (HEADPHONES) • There is a microphone outside of the headphones that captures the outside noise and inverts it. Sound wave Sound wave Inverted .

ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (MICROPHONE) • There is an additional microphone placed on the back of the main input. • The inverted signal will cancel out with the main input signal leaving only the desired signal without noise. • This additional microphone captures a sound which is then inverted and added to the sound wave that the main input captures. .

• And to reduce the amount of saliva that may build up on the microphone.POP FILTERS • These are placed in front of the microphone. • This serves for two reasons: • To reduce certain input noise from the signal going into the microphone. .