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Chapter 1

Whole Numbers: How to Dissect and Solve Problems

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

#1

Whole Numbers; How to Dissect and Solve Word Problems

Learning Unit Objectives
LU1.1 Reading, Writing, and Rounding Whole

Numbers 1. Use place values to read and write numeric and verbal whole numbers
position

2. Round whole numbers to the indicated

3. Use blueprint aid for dissecting and

solving a word problem
McGraw-Hill/Irwin 1-2 ©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

#1 Whole Numbers. check and estimate subtraction computations McGraw-Hill/Irwin 1-3 ©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. check and estimate addition computations 2. All Rights Reserved . Add whole numbers. Subtract whole numbers. How to Dissect and Solve Word Problems Learning Unit Objectives LU1.2 Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers 1.

check and estimate multiplication computations 2. All Rights Reserved . Multiply whole numbers.3 Multiplying and Dividing Whole Numbers 1.#1 Whole Numbers. check and estimate computations McGraw-Hill/Irwin 1-4 ©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. How to Dissect and Solve Word Problems Learning Unit Objectives LU1. Divide whole numbers.

1-5 Hundred trillions Ten trillions Trillions Trillions Comma Hundred billions Billions Ten billions Billions Comma Hundred millions Ten millions Millions Comma Hundred Thousands 1 . 7 4 Figure 1. 6 0 5 .1 Millions Whole-number place-value chart 3 . 8 9 1 .891.743. 4 1 2 Tens Ones Ten Thousands Thousands Comma Thousands 1.605.412 Units Hundreds .

seven hundred forty three million. 4 1 2 Tens Ones . 6 0 5 . 7 4 1-6 3 . 8 9 1 .Writing numeric and verbal whole numbers One trillion. eight hundred ninety one thousand. six hundred five billion. four hundred twelve Trillions Hundred trillions Ten trillions Billions Hundred billions Ten billions Millions Hundred millions Ten millions Thousands Hundred Thousands Units Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Trillions Comma Comma Millions Comma Comma Billions 1 .

Converting parts to a regular whole number Convert 2. Be sure to add commas as needed. 1-7 2. Add zeros so the leftmost digit ends in the word name of the amount you want to convert.000 .300.3 Step 2.000. Drop decimal point and insert a comma 2.3 billion to a regular whole number Step 1.

Identify the place value of the digit you want to round 9362 Step 3. If 5 or more. increase the identified digit by 1. Drop all digits to the right of the identified digit 9462 Step 2. Identify the digit to the right. if less than 5 do not change 1-8 9400 .Rounding Whole Numbers Step 1.

Identify leftmost digit Step 3. increase the identified digit by 1. Change all other digits to zero 7843 7843 Step 2. Identify the digit to the right. if less than 5 do not change 1-9 8000 . If 5 or more.Rounding all the way Step 1.

Does the solution make sense? • Step 4.General Problem-Solving Procedure • Step 1. State the problem(s) • Step 2. Decide on the best methods to solve the problem(s) • Step 3. Evaluate results 1-10 .

five hundred fifty-six thousand dollars --------> $22. Rounding all the way means only the leftmost digit will remain. Express each verbal form in numeric form. The Facts Solving for? Steps to take Key Points Sales: One hundred ninety-four million dollars. ----------->$194.000 ---------> $20. Sales: One hundred ninety-four million dollars. All other digits become zeros.How to Dissect and Solve a Word Problem Tootsie Roll Industries sales reached one hundred ninetyfour million dollars and a record profit of twenty-two million.000.000.000 -----------> $200.000. Round the sales and profit figures all the way. Sales and profit rounded all the way. five hundred fifty-six thousand dollars.000 Profit: Twenty-two million.556. five hundred fifty six thousand dollars. Profit: Twenty-two million.000 1-11 . Identify leftmost digit in each number.

If the sum is more than 9. 1-12 Example 211 1.594 22.362 5. repeat Step 2 until all place values are added. Align the numbers according to their place values 2.913 8.Adding Whole Numbers 3 Steps 1. Write the sum below the column. write the units digit and carry the tens digit.924 6.793 . Add the units column. Moving to the left. 3.

793 6.000 9.000 7.924 6.594 22.913 8.000 5.000 23.362 1. 1-13 .Estimate Addition by Rounding All the Way Example 211 Example 211 1.000 *Final answer could have more than one nonzero since total is not rounded all the way.

Begin the subtraction with the units digits. Write the difference below the column. If the units digit in the minuend is smaller than the digit in the subtrahend. Example 13 130 (Minuend) .60 (Subtrahend) 70 Difference 3.Subtracting Whole Numbers 3 Steps 1. Align the minuend and subtrahend by place values 2. Moving to the left. borrow 1 from the tens digit in the minuend. repeat Step 2 until all place values in the subtrahend are subtracted Check 70 +60 130 1-14 .

3. 418 (Multiplicand) x 52 (Multiplier) 836 20 90 (Partial Product) 4. Your partial product right digit or first digit is placed directly below the digit in the multiplier that you used to multiply.736 (Product) . Keep multiplying as you move left through the multiplicand. Continue steps 2 and 3 until multiplication process is complete. Add the partial products to get the final product. Align the multiplicand and multiplier at the right. Multiplying the right digit of the multiplier with the right digit of the multiplicand. Example 2. 1-15 21.Multiplication of Whole Numbers 4 Steps 1.

Checking and Estimating Multiplication Check 52 x 418 Check the multiplication process by reversing the multiplicand and multiplier and then multiplying Estimate 50 x 400 416 52 20 8 20.000 21.736 1-16 .

Count the number of zeros in the multiplicand and multiplier.300. Attach the number of zeros counted in Step 2 to your answer 65000 (3 zeros) x 420 (1 zeros) (4 zeros) Solution 65 x 42 130 260 27.000 1-17 . When zeros are at the end of the multiplicand or the multiplier. or both. (4) 3.Multiplication Shortcut with Numbers Ending in Zero Example 3 Steps 1. disregard the zeros and multiply 2.

900 <----Add 2 Zero 99 x 1.000 <----Add 3 Zero 1-18 .900 = 9. 99 x 10 = 990 = 990 <----Add 1 Zero 99 x 100 = 9. Insert commas as needed.000 = 99. Attach that number of zeros to the right side of the other whole number to obtain the answer. Count the number of zeros in the power of 10. 2.Multiplying a Whole Number by a Power of 10 2 Steps 1.000 = 99.

Divisor Example 18 15 270 15 120 120 0 Quotient Dividend 1-19 . The result is the Quotient.Division of Whole Numbers • How many times one number (Divisor) is contained in another number (Dividend).

95.000 / 100 -. Drop the same number of zeros in the dividend as in the divisor.000 / 10 -.95. 2.000 = 95 <----Drop 3 Zeros 1-20 .Division Shortcut with Numbers Ending in Zeros 2 Steps 1. 95. counting from right to left.000 = 950 <----Drop 2 Zeros 95. Count the number of ending zeros in the divisor.500 <----Drop 1 Zero 95.95.000 = 9.000 -.000 / 1.