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Chapter 2

Fractions

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

#2

Fractions Learning Unit Objectives

LU2.1 Types of Fractions and Conversion

Procedures

1. Recognize the three types of fractions 2. Convert improper fractions to whole or

mixed numbers and mixed numbers to improper fractions
3. Convert fractions to lowest and highest

terms
2-2

#2 Fractions Learning Unit Objectives LU2. Add like and unlike fractions 2. Find the least common denominator (LCD) by inspection and prime numbers 3.2 Adding and Subtraction of Fractions 1. Add and subtract mixed numbers with the same or different denominators 2-3 . Subtract like and unlike fractions 4.

Multiply and divide proper fractions and mixed numbers 2.#2 Fractions Learning Unit Objectives LU2. Use the cancellation method in the multiplication and division of fractions 2-4 .3 Multiplying and Dividing Fractions 1.

1. 1. 1. 18 4 2 12 7 55 Denominator 2-5 . its numerator is smaller than its denominator. 4.Types of Fractions Numerator Proper Proper fractions have a value less than 1.

7. 22 14 6 14 19 2-6 . 15.Types of Fractions Improper Numerator Improper Fractions have a value equal to or greater than 1. Denominator 14. its numerator is equal or greater than its denominator.

139 9 6 10 8 6 11 2-7 .Types of Fractions Mixed numbers are the sum of a whole number greater than zero and a proper fraction Mixed Numbers 5 1. 33 5. 8 7. 5 9.

2.Converting Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions Mixed Numbers 3 Steps 1. 2-8 61 8 (8 x 6) = 48 (8 x 6) = 48 48 + 1 = 49 49 8 . 3 Place the total from Step 2 over the denominator of the old fraction to get the improper fraction. Add the product from Step 1 to the numerator of the old fraction. Multiply the denominator of the fraction by the whole number.

Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms by Inspection Find the lowest whole number that will divide evenly into the numerator and denominator 24 = 24 / 6 = 4 30 30 / 6 5 2-9 .

Finding the Greatest Common Divisor Step 1. Divide the numerator into the denominator Step 2. Continue until the remainder is 0 2-10 24 30 1 24 30 24 6 4 6 24 24 0 24 / 6 = 4 30 / 6 5 . Divide the remainder in Step 1 into the divisor of Step 1 Step 3. Divide the remainder of Step 2 into the divisor of Step 2.

convert your answer to a mixed number 2-11 .is larger than your b original denominator.Adding Like Fractions • Add the numerators and place the total over the denominator • If the total of your 1 +4 = 5 7 7 7 5 +6 = 11 = 1 2 9 9 9 9 numerators is the same as your original denominator. convert your answer to a whole number. if the total .

What is the least common denominator? 3 + 5 7 21 7 42 21 2-12 .Least Common Denominator (LCD) • The smallest nonzero whole number into which ALL denominators will divide evenly.

reduce the answer to lowest terms. Find the LCD 2. 3. Change each fraction to a like fraction with the LCD. If necessary. 4. Add the numerators and place the total over the LCD.Adding Unlike Fractions 4 Steps 1. 24 + 9 + 8 + 6 = 47 72 72 72 72 72 2-13 1 +1 +1 +1 3 8 9 12 .

If necessary. reduce the answer to lowest terms 9 .Subtracting Like Fractions • Step 1 .1= 8 / 2 =4 10 10 10 / 2 5 2-14 .Subtract the numerators and place the total over the denominator • Step 2 .

If necessary. Find the LCD Step 2. Raise the fraction to its equivalent value.Subtracting Unlike Fractions Step 1. 5 . Step 4. reduce the answer to lowest terms.2 8 64 Step 3. 40 64 .2 64 64 38 = 19 64 32 5 8 2-15 .2 . Subtract the numerators and place the answer over the LCD.

64 8 . Subtract fractions.Subtracting Mixed Numbers When Borrowing is Not Necessary Step 1. Step 2. Subtract whole numbers. making sure to find the LCD. 61 2 -3 8 Step 3.3 8 61 8 2-16 . Reduce the fractions to lowest terms.

Make sure the fractions have the LCD. Subtract whole numbers and fractions. Borrow from the whole number. Reduce the fractions to lowest terms.Subtracting Mixed Numbers When Borrowing is Necessary Step 1. 2-17 31 2 -1 3 4 32 4 -1 3 4 26 4 -1 3 4 3 14 . Step 4. Step 3. Step 2.

Multiply the numerator and the denominators 5 x 1 x 4 = 20 = 10 1 6 7 42 21 Step 2.Multiplying Proper Fractions Step 1. Reduce the answer to lowest terms 2-18 .

Multiplying Mixed Numbers Convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions Multiply the numerator and denominators 1 2 2-19 1 1 7 3 7 31 = = 1 = X X 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 Reduce the answer to lowest terms .

Reduce the answer to lowest terms 2 = 1 X3 = 3 3 8 2 16 . .Dividing Proper Fractions Invert (turn upside down) the divisor (the second fraction) Multiply the fractions 1 8 2-20 .

Dividing Mixed Numbers Convert all mixed numbers to improper fractions Invert the divisor and multiply 8 2-21 3 X 5 35 6 105 = 3 3 = X 2 = 4 6 4 17 34 34 Reduce the answer to lowest terms .