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Nik Azmi Nik Mahmood

pig nut.  Medicinal tree in some parts of the world (Madagascar) .  Common names: Jatropha. and sometimes refer as diesel tree. physic nut. barbados nuts. toxic protein)  Native in Central America and Mexico. purging nut.Jatropha fruit  High toxicity in leaves and nuts (phorbol esters and curcin.

11 %. pesticides. lubricants. biodiesel. . lighting like kerosene but the properties are not suitable yet.Jatropha oil  Estimation to contain 35-40% of oil and the kernels 55- 60%.  Other uses: soap.  Can be used for oil in cooking. (Also depends on the method of extraction)  The by-products (seed cakes) from the seeds and kernels approx. skin cosmetics.


a specified amount of 450mL methanol and 10gr Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) was mixed in a round bottom flask. Separation of glycerin and biodiesel. 3. The quantity of produced glycerin varies according the oil used. Both the glycerin and biodiesel products have a substantial amount of the excess alcohol that was used in the reaction. the amount of excess alcohol used. Reaction. . For this process. the process used.The production of biodiesel by transesterification of the oil generally occurs using the following steps: 1. 2. The alcohol/catalyst mix is then charged into a closed reaction vessel and 1000mL Jatropha oil is added. The reacted mixture is sometimes neutralized at this step if needed. Excess alcohol is normally used to ensure total conversion of the fat or oil to its esters. Mixing of alcohol and catalyst. Once the reaction is complete. two major products exist: glycerin and biodiesel.

In most cases the salt is left in the glycerin. Alcohol Removal. Methyl Ester Wash. removal of glycerin. 5. 6. The glycerin by-product contains unused catalyst and soaps that are neutralized with an acid and sent to storage as crude glycerin. Glycerin Neutralization. In some cases the salt formed during this phase is recovered for use as fertilizer. removal of alcohol and absence of free fatty acids.4. . The most important aspects of biodiesel production to ensure trouble free operation in diesel engines are complete reaction. removal of catalyst.

Japan Air) . even already proved that three mercedes cars powered by this fuel could run 30.000 acres within 3 years). US continental airlines.Biodiesel  Daimler chrysler (German) research claimed that jatropha based biodiesel has fulfills EU norms for biodiesel quality.000 km. Myanmar (2005 700. Jet fuel (Air New Zealand.  Big projects set up.



termites infestation iii. Need at least five times as much water per unit energy. ii.Other Problems  Competition of water with other food crops.  Storage problems.  For agricultural views: i.  Cost of oil extraction machines – spindle press costs 4 times higher than ram press. Invasiveness – can spread easily. Only can be stored few months. Host for casava virus . Disease and insects – pathogenic fungi.

Conclusion  What are actually the benefits if the industry performance of biodiesel production increases?  Is it fulfills the human needs?  Is it fulfills the world needs? .

Trend ii. Points to discuss: i. New process iii.Biohydrogen from starch-based biomass  Discussion of paper given. Scaling up production .