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Fluid mechanics lab experiments

Textbook: Laboratory Manual




Reference: Textbook and handouts for Introduction to Water
Resources; Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 4
th
Edition
(Munson, Young, and Okishi).

Instructor: Dr. H. Prashanth Reddy,
COURSE POLICY
Grading: Laboratory reports 30%
Data Analyses Exercise 15%
Lab participation and technique 15%
Exam 40%________

Total 100%
90-100 A
80-89 B
70-79 C
60-69 D
<60 F


Important Note: Free discussion, inquiry, and expression are encouraged in any academic activity
inside and outside of the classroom. Such actions should be conducted in a professional manner.

Course Objective
To strengthen the student's understanding of the
principles of hydraulics through observation and hands-
on participation;
To help the student to visualize different flow
phenomena and the performance of various hydraulic
devices;
To familiarize the student with methods for flow
measurement.
Why we conduct experiments?
To understand physical processes in
controlled environment

To provide data for model validation
What we need to be aware of?
Before conducting an experiment one
must ask the question WHY

If the objective is to develop a relationship
then how universal that relationship is
going to be?

What are the most important parameters?

Topics
Laboratory Experiments:

Major losses in pipe flow (Exp 1)
Sharp-crested weirs (Exp 2)
Wave speed (Exp 3)
Pumps in series (Exp 4)
Hydraulic jump (Exp 5)
Pumps in parallel (Exp 6)
Water surface profile-1 (Exp 7)
Water surface profile-2 (Exp 8)

Laboratory Experiment 1: Pipe friction
Objective
The objective of this experiment is to determine the
variation in friction factor with flow rates.
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Colebrook
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Experiment 1
Expt 1 Manometer readings
Objective
The objective of this experiment is to calibrate sharp
crested weir as a flow measuring device.
Objective
The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate and measure the
wave speed in a stationary fluid and compare the measured wave
speed with its theoretical value.
Experiment 4: Pumps in series
Objective
The objective of this experiment is to determine
the head-capacity curve for a centrifugal pump,
and for two centrifugal pumps operating in
series.
Hydraulic Jumps are used to
dissipate excessive energy of water flowing over spillways, weirs
and other hydraulic structures and thus prevent scouring
downstream of the structures;
recover head or raise the water level on the downstream side of a
measuring flume and thus maintain high water level in the channel
for irrigation or other water distribution purposes;
increase weight on an apron and thus reduce the effect of uplift
pressure under a masonry structure by raising the water depth on
the apron;
mix chemicals used for water purification;
aerate water for city water supplies.
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Specific Energy Equation
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Normalized Specific Energy diagram
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Theory
Data
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PROCEDURE
1. The flume should be in a horizontal position. Measure the opening
of the sluice gate.
2. Start the pump.
3. Wait until the jump is stationary in the flume. You may want to
adjust the downstream gate to ensure that the jump becomes
stable in the mid-section of the flume.
4. Measure y
1
and y
2
. Measure these values at least at three points
across the channel. Be very careful in measuring these values. A
small error in measurement can cause serious problem when you
analyze the data.
5. Measure the discharge by volume using a bucket and stop-watch.
6. Repeat steps 3 to 7 for at least 5 different discharges.
7. Close the valve and turn the pump off.

PUMPS IN PARALLEL
when one pump is inadequate to deliver the necessary flow at a
specified pressure, two or more pumps in parallel may be used. The
effect of two pumps in parallel is that each pump delivers flow for the
specified pressure, and these flows combine to increase the total
amount of water being pumped, while maintaining nearly the
specified pressure.
Performance curve of two pumps in
parallel
Single Pump
i. Make sure that all valves are closed except valve 5.
ii. Start pump A
iii. Open valve 2 gradually to its maximum discharge.
iv. Take the pressure gauge reading (shutoff head).
v. Open valve 1 gradually until the gauge indicator drops two marks. Allow the flow to
stabilize.
vi. Take the gauge reading and measure the flow rate by volume using a bucket and
stop-watch.
vii. Repeat step 5 and 6 until the valve 1 is completely open giving maximum discharge.
You should take a total of 9~10 readings.
viii. Close valve 2 at and turn the pump off.
ix. Close valve 1.
x. For pump B repeat steps from 1 to 9 using valve 3 instead of valve 2.
Pumps in parallel
i. Make sure that all valves are closed except valve 5.
ii. Start up pumps A and B.
iii. Open valve 2 and 3 gradually to maximum discharge.
iv. Take the pressure gauge reading (shutoff head).
v. Open valve 1 gradually until the gauge indicator drop two marks.
vi. Take the gauge reading and measure the discharge by volume using a bucket and
stop-watch.
vii. Repeat step 5 and 6 until valve 1 is completely open giving the maximum discharge.
viii. Close valves 2 and 3, and turn the pumps off.
ix. Close valve 1.
Exp-7 Uniform and Gradually varied
flow
Objectives
The objectives of this experiment are
1. to measure non-uniform flow depths during
subcritical flow conditions and
2. to estimate Mannings roughness coefficient.
Gradually varied flow
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Distance (m)
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Bed level
Water surface
Normal depth
The Manning equation can be used to determine
the normal flow depth

We will use measured quantity to determine the
Manning roughness coefficient in a wooden flume
PROCEDURE
Establish a datum and zero point in the x-direction. The zero point should be set
near the downstream end of the flume. Measure slope and width of the wooden
flume near the stair case.
The pump will be on and the downstream gate level should be set at the normal
depth level. Record the manometer reading and calculate the discharge from the
relationship given on the chart. The manometer reading may fluctuate. Take an
average value.
Measure the water depth along the working section of the flume at least at 1 m,
1.5 m, 2 m, 2.5 m, 3 m, 3.5 m, and 4.0 m from the upstream end as marked by a
tape measure installed on the top of the flume. Use a ruler to measure the water
depth.
Calculate Mannings n from each of these measurements. Calculate the average
value.
Set the downstream gate level at a height of 20 cm. Allow the flow to become
steady.
Measure the water depth along the entire channel at 0.1 m interval for a distance
of 2 m from the downstream and at an interval of 0.25 m for the rest of the flume.
Plot your data on the gradually varied flow profile in the excel file provided with the
lab module.
Exp 8. Uniform and Gradually varied
flow
The objective of this experiment is

To compute H-2 water surface profile validating with
actual profile

H2 Profile
The Manning equation and standard step method
can be used to compute the water surface profile


PROCEDURE
Establish a datum and zero point in the x-direction. The zero point should be set
near the downstream end of the flume. Make the flume horizontal

Remove the downstream gate

The pump will be on and the Allow the flow to become steady.


Record the manometer reading and calculate the discharge from the relationship
given on the chart. The manometer reading may fluctuate. Take an average value.


Measure the water depth along the entire channel at 0.1 m interval for a distance
of 2 m from the downstream and at an interval of 0.25 m for the rest of the flume.

Plot your data on the gradually varied flow profile in the excel file provided with the
lab module.

Compute the critical depth for given flow and compute water surface profile by
using standard step method use mannings value as determined in expt 7.

Compare theoretical plot and actual plot