present by:Dolly .Nurul Huda & Siti Norain .

Autism is a mental disorder characterized by  Abnormal behavior such as withdrawal  Development problems socially. emotionally. linguistically  Appear lost in fantasy  Very unresponsive to physical and verbal communication .

However. to some degree.  Having repetitive or restricted behaviours.Symptoms The early signs and symptoms of autism and the associated gastrointestinal problems. every child with an autism spectrum disorder has problems. . in the following three key areas:  Communicating. whether verbally or non-verbally. tantrums and adverse behaviours vary widely. while others have more gut and behavioural difficulties. Some autistic children have only mild symptoms and impairments.  Relating socially and interacting with others and the world around them.

or to his or her name Does not make noises to attract your attention Does not reciprocate smiles or imitate facial expressions Does not reach out when being picked up Does not like to give or receive cuddles Doesn’t call out or make basic requests. . Does not make eye contact Does not respond to being called.The word Autism comes from the greek “autos” meaning self. and children with autism are concerned with themselves. The early symptoms can be:         A lack of responsiveness to others.

         Delayed or no age-appropriate language development No pointing at objects or people or waving goodbye Not following people by eye Has repetitive behaviours such as hand flapping Linines up toys instead of playing with them for their functions Has an obsession with a particular video or TV program Displays echolalia (repeating what you say) Running close to a wall repetitively. Has self-stimulatory behaviours . and looking sideways at it.

. used in some vaccines.CAUSES Vaccines  The first theory suggests that the MMR (Mumps-Measles-Rubella) vaccine may cause intestinal problems leading to the development of autism.  The medical community has soundly refuted these theories. based on anecdotal evidence.  The second theory suggests that a mercurybased preservative called thimerosal. but a very passionate group of parents and researchers continue to disagree. could be connected to autism.

studies have shown that parents from families with autistic members are more likely to have autistic children.  In addition.  Studies have shown many cases of "spontaneous" genetic mutation which are not inherited.Genetic  It is certain that some cases of autism have a genetic basis. and it is quite possible that genetics are involved with all cases of autism. and families with one autistic child are at increased risk of having more than one autistic child. .

. whose book "The Empty Fortress: Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self" created a generation of parents carrying the guilt for their child's disability. Kanner's misinterpretation of autism impressed a major figure in psychology. But Dr. Kanner. our generation is spared that burden. He was wrong. the man who first identified autism as a unique condition.Bad Parenting  Dr. Fortunately. Bruno Bettelheim. had the idea that cold “refrigerator” mothers caused autism.

and intriguing findings are coming out of top research institutions. . They also seem to process information differently. their brains are "wired" differently. Research on this issue is ongoing.Differences in the Brain  Autistic individuals seem to have larger brains. in other words.

Immune Deficiency Problem  There is some evidence that autism is linked to problems in the immune system. . however. Some researchers say they have developed effective treatments based on boosting the immune system. The NIH. states that the evidence is not yet strong enough to show a causal relationship. Autistic individuals often have other physical issues related to immune deficiency.

 There is some evidence that allergies to certain foods could contribute to autistic symptoms. . Most people who hold to this theory feel that gluten (a wheat product) and casein (dairy) are the most signficant culprits.

Certain supplements. But megavitamin therapies have been used for many years to treat autistic symptoms. do seem to be helpful for treating some aspects of autism. . particularly omega fish oils.Poor Nutrition  It seems unlikely that malnutrition can cause autism.

Behavioral training and management  positive reinforcement  self-help  social skills training .Treatment 1.

Specialized therapies  Speech  Occupational  physical therapy .2.

3.Medicines     Depression anxiety hyperactivity obsessive-compulsive behaviors. .

Community support and parent training  Talk to your doctor or contact an advocacy group for support and training.4. .

Effective Methods: .

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