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Holy Eucharist
The Greek eukharistia

eu- "well" + kharis "favor,

Eukharisteo is the usual
verb for "to thank"

Paul emphasized participation in the Eucharist as a Christian
duty because it signified the unity of Christians in one body —
the body of Christ. Early Christian art, including wall paintings
in the catacombs, illustrates Christians eating and drinking
bread and wine together, and several written texts provide
evidence of the different ways in which the Eucharist was
celebrated by the early Christians.


In the three hundred years after Jesus' crucifixion,
Christian practices and beliefs regarding the
Eucharist took definitive shape as central to
Christian worship. At first, Christian beliefs and
practices spread through word of mouth, but within
a generation Christians had begun writing about
Jesus and about Christian practice, the Eucharist
included. The theology of the Eucharist and its role
as a sacrament developed during this period.
Establishment of the Eucharist
Various scholars maintain that Jesus made table fellowship
central to his ministry, that he established the Eucharist at the
Last Supper, that Paul established it in his missions among the
Gentiles, or that it arose from multiple traditions.

Jesus at table
Table fellowship was central to Jesus' ministry. He was
infamous for violating codes of honor to eat freely with
outsiders, termed "sinners and tax collectors" in the Gospels.
Jesus presumably taught at the dinner table, as was
customary. Jesus' emphasis on table fellowship is reflected in
the large number of eating scenes in early Christian art.
Jesus Christ's New Covenant
The synoptic gospels affirm that Jesus instituted the ritual of
bread and wine at the Last Supper, with his disciples on the
night before he was crucified. With this ritual, Jesus instituted
a new covenant in his own body and blood. All four gospels
link Jesus' passion to the Jewish Passover.

Instituted by Jesus and developed later
Professor Robert J. Daly, S.J., argues that Jesus did indeed
institute the Eucharist, though it took generations and
centuries of guidance from the Holy Spirit for the Eucharist to
reach its current form.
Paul's First Letter to the
Corinthians is the earliest
record of Eucharistic
practice. He refers to the
Lord's Supper, a communal
meal, which he links to the
Last Supper and describes
as a memorial of Jesus to be
kept until his return.
Arguments in favor of Paul's
having founded the Lord's
Supper in a pagan context
include the Jewish
prohibition against drinking
blood, the pervasive history
The epistles of Paul the Apostle
(d. 64-67) are the earliest
documents in the New Testament.
He recalled for the Corinthians the
Last Supper to indicate how they
should celebrate the Lord's

In his First Epistle to the
Corinthians (c 54-55), Paul the
Apostle gives the earliest
recorded description of Jesus' Last
Supper: "The Lord Jesus on the
night when he was betrayed took
bread, and when he had given
thanks, he broke it, and said, 'This
is my body which is for you. Do
this in remembrance of me.' In the
same way also the cup, after
supper, saying, 'This cup is the
The synoptic gospels, first Mark, and then Matthew and
Luke, depict Jesus as presiding over the Last Supper.
References to Jesus' body and blood foreshadow his
crucifixion, and he identifies them as a new covenant. In
the gospel of John, the account of the Last Supper has no
mention of Jesus taking bread and wine and speaking of
them as his body and blood; instead it recounts his
humble act of washing the disciples' feet, the prophecy of
the betrayal, which set in motion the events that would
lead to the cross, and his long discourse in response to
some questions posed by his followers, in which he went
on to speak of the importance of the unity of the disciples
The Didache (Greek: teaching) is an early Church order,
including, among other features, instructions for Baptism
and the Eucharist. Most scholars date it to the early 2nd
century. Two separate eucharistic traditions appear in the
Didache, the earlier tradition in chapter 10 and the later
one preceding it in chapter 9. The Eucharist is mentioned
again in chapter 14.
Ignatius of Antioch, one of the Apostolic Fathers and a
direct disciple of the Apostle John, mentions the Eucharist
as "the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ", and Justin
Martyr speaks of it as more than a meal: "the food over
which the prayer of thanksgiving, the word received from
Christ, has been said ... is the flesh and blood of this Jesus
who became flesh ... and the deacons carry some to
CCC1322 The holy Eucharist completes Christian initiation. Those
who have been raised to the dignity of the royal priesthood by
Baptism and configured more deeply to Christ by Confirmation
participate with the whole community in the Lord's own sacrifice by
means of the Eucharist.
CCC1323 "At the Last Supper, on the night he was betrayed, our
Savior instituted the Eucharistic sacrifice of his Body and Blood.
This he did in order to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross
throughout the ages until he should come again, and so to entrust
to his beloved Spouse, the Church, a memorial of his death and
resurrection: a sacrament of love, a sign of unity, a bond of charity,
a Paschal banquet 'in which Christ is consumed, the mind is filled
with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us.'"
CCC1324 The Eucharist is "the source and summit of the Christian life."
"The other sacraments, and indeed all ecclesiastical ministries and works
of the apostolate, are bound up with the Eucharist and are oriented toward
it. For in the blessed Eucharist is contained the whole spiritual good of the
Church, namely Christ himself, our Pasch."

CCC1325 "The Eucharist is the efficacious sign and sublime cause of that
communion in the divine life and that unity of the People of God by which
the Church is kept in being. It is the culmination both of God's action
sanctifying the world in Christ and of the worship men offer to Christ and
through him to the Father in the Holy Spirit."

CCC1326 Finally, by the Eucharistic celebration we already unite
ourselves with the heavenly liturgy and anticipate eternal life, when God
will be all in all.

CCC1327 In brief, the Eucharist is the sum and summary of our faith: "Our
way of thinking is attuned to the Eucharist, and the Eucharist in turn

1328 The inexhaustible richness of this sacrament is expressed
in the different names we give it. Each name evokes certain
aspects of it. It is called:

Eucharist, because it is an action of thanksgiving to God. The
Greek words eucharistein141 and eulogein142 recall the Jewish
blessings that proclaim - especially during a meal - God's
works: creation, redemption, and sanctification.
1329 The Lord's Supper, because of its connection with the supper
which the Lord took with his disciples on the eve of his Passion and
because it anticipates the wedding feast of the Lamb in the heavenly

The Breaking of Bread, because Jesus used this rite, part of a Jewish
meal, when as master of the table he blessed and distributed the
bread,144 above all at the Last Supper.145 It is by this action that his
disciples will recognize him after his Resurrection,146 and it is this
expression that the first Christians will use to designate their
Eucharistic assemblies;147 by doing so they signified that all who eat
the one broken bread, Christ, enter into communion with him and form
but one body in him.

The Eucharistic assembly (synaxis), because the Eucharist is
1330 The memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection.

The Holy Sacrifice, because it makes present the one sacrifice
of Christ the Savior and includes the Church's offering. The
terms holy sacrifice of the Mass, "sacrifice of praise," spiritual
sacrifice, pure and holy sacrifice are also used, since it
completes and surpasses all the sacrifices of the Old Covenant.

The Holy and Divine Liturgy, because the Church's whole liturgy
finds its center and most intense expression in the celebration
of this sacrament; in the same sense we also call its celebration
the Sacred Mysteries. We speak of the Most Blessed Sacrament
because it is the Sacrament of sacraments. The Eucharistic
species reserved in the tabernacle are designated by this same
1331 Holy Communion, because by this sacrament we
unite ourselves to Christ, who makes us sharers in his
Body and Blood to form a single body.151 We also call it:
the holy things (ta hagia; sancta) - the first meaning of
the phrase "communion of saints" in the Apostles' Creed -
the bread of angels, bread from heaven, medicine of
immortality, viaticum. . . .

1332 Holy Mass (Missa), because the liturgy in which the
mystery of salvation is accomplished concludes with the
sending forth (missio) of the faithful, so that they may
fulfill God's will in their daily lives.
Yet for Pope John Paul II, eucharistic devotion is not
merely encouraged among the faithful, but the
faithful are also given a canonical right to have the
opportunity for daily eucharistic adoration made
available to them. This canonical right is stated in
canon 937 as follows:

"Unless there is a grave reason to the contrary, a
church in which the Blessed Eucharist is reserved is
to be open to the faithful for at least some hours
every day, so that they can pray before the Blessed
canon 941 §1 encourages eucharistic exposition outside
of the Mass in churches and oratories where the Blessed
Sacrament is reserved. The only limit one finds regarding
eucharistic exposition for the faithful is in the second
paragraph of this same canon, which forbids eucharistic
exposition "while Mass is being celebrated in the same
area of the church or oratory." This simple restriction
upon exposition of the Blessed Sacrament — a type of
eucharistic devotion — while Mass is being offered is
nowhere close to complete suppression of eucharistic
adoration outside of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass being
claimed by some.
Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (Lumen Gentium)
Perhaps the most important document of the Council. This
document elaborates on the nature, role, and guidelines of the
Church. It boldly states that the "Eucharistic sacrifice is the
source and summit of the Christian life." (Chapter II: The
People of God).

The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum
This document again emphasizes the Real Presence of Jesus in
the Eucharist and that we should increase our devotion to it. A
powerful statement in this document to counteract some of the
liturgical abuses occurring in some parishes is that "no other
person, not even a priest, may add, remove, or change
Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum Ordinis)
Reiterates the same message that "The Eucharistic sacrifice is the center
and root of the whole life of the priest." (Section: Unity and Harmony of

Decree on Priestly Training (Optatam Totius)
States that seminarians "should be taught to seek Christ in the faithful
meditation on God's word, in the active participation in the sacred
mysteries of the Church, especially in the Eucharist. . ." (Sec: The
Careful Development of the Spiritual Training).

Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio)
Acknowledges that the Catholic understanding of the Eucharistic is not symbolic
as in other Christian denominations: "Although we believe that they have
not retained the proper reality of the Eucharistic mystery in its
fullness, especially because of the absence of the Sacrament of
Orders. . . therefore, the teaching concerning the Lord's Supper, the
Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei Verbum)
The document is concerned with Divine Revelation, so Eucharistic
references are scant. However, it maintains that the Scriptures are
best revealed in the sacred liturgy.

Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church
(Christus Dominus)
States the role and responsibilities of the bishop in the Church. One
such responsibility is that "They should therefore see to it that
the faithful know and live the paschal mystery more deeply
through the Eucharist . . ."(Chapter II, Sec I: Diocesan Bishops).

Decree on the Apostolate of Lay People (Apostolicam
Document explains the role of the laity in the Church such that,
Decree on the Mission Activity of the Church (Ad Gentes)
Document which elaborates on the Church's missionary activity. To be
missionary we must know and be like Christ primarily through reception of the
Sacraments: "As members of the living Christ, incorporated into Him
and made like unto Him through baptism and through confirmation
and the Eucharist, all the faithful are duty-bound to cooperate in the
expansion and spreading out of His Body, to bring it to fullness as
soon as may be (Eph. 4:13)."(Chapter VI: Cooperation)

On the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)
This document provides direction for the Church in today's world. The Church
strives to be that spotless bride to be presented at the "wedding feast of the
Lamb" The Eucharist help us to become holy, "The Lord left behind a pledge
of this hope and strength for life's journey in that sacrament of faith
where natural elements refined by man are gloriously changed into His
Body and Blood, providing a meal of brotherly solidarity and a
foretaste of the heavenly banquet." (Chapter III: Man's Activity Throughout
Declaration on Christian Education (Gravissimum Educationis)
States that Christian education should help children, "become ever
more aware of the gift of Faith they have received, and that
they learn in addition how to worship God the Father in spirit
and truth (cf. John 4:23) especially in liturgical action . . ."
(Chapter II: Christian Education)

Decree on the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite
(Orientalium Ecclesiarum)
"The Sacred Ecumenical Council confirms and approves the
ancient discipline of the sacraments existing in the Oriental
Churches . . ." (Sec: The Discipline of the Sacraments). However, as
Catholics we are to celebrate the Eucharist at a Catholic Mass because
of other unresolved differences between the Roman Catholic Church
and the Eastern Churches.
Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life (Perfectae Caritatis)
Encourages religious to receive the Eucharist often to nourish
the spiritual life, "They should celebrate the sacred
liturgy, especially the holy sacrifice of the Mass, with
both lips and heart as the Church desires and so nourish
their spiritual life from this richest of sources.“

Other documents which do not reference the Eucharist:
Declaration on Religious Freedom (Dignitatis Humanae), On the
Relation to Non-Christian Religions (Nostra Aetate), Guidelines
on Religious Relations with the Jews, Decree on the Means of
Social Communication (Inter Mirifica)
Most Christians, even those who deny that there is any
real change in the bread or water and wine or juice used,
recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though
they differ about exactly how, where, and when Christ is

Many Christian denominations classify the Eucharist as a
sacrament. Some Protestants prefer to call it an
ordinance, viewing it not as a specific channel of divine
grace but as an expression of faith and of obedience to
 In the teaching of the Catholic Church,
the Eucharist is one of the seven
 The Eucharist not only commemorates the
Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ, but
also makes it truly present.
 The priest and victim of the sacrifice is
one and the same (Christ). The only
difference is how the Eucharist is offered: in
an unbloody manner.
 The only minister of the Eucharist, that is, one authorized to
celebrate the rite and consecrate the Eucharist, is a validly
ordained priest (either bishop or presbyter) acting in the person
of Christ (in persona Christi).
In other words the priest celebrant represents Christ, who is the
Head of the Church, and acts before God the Father in the name
of the Church.
 The matter used must be wheaten bread and grape wine;
this is essential for validity.
 consecration
According of to the bread
the (known as the host) and
wine represents
Church, when the thebread
separation of Jesus' body from his
and wine
blood at Calvary. inHowever,
are consecrated since he has risen, the
the Eucharist,
Church teaches
they cease that
to be his body
bread and blood can no longer
and wine,
andtruly separated.
become insteadWhere one and
the body is, the other must be.
blood of although
Christ: the priest (or
although theminister) says "The
body of Christ"
empirical when administering
appearances are not the host, and "The
changed,of the
Christ" when
reality presenting
is changed by the chalice, the
the power of who the receives
Holy Spiriteither
whoone receives Christ,
whole and entire.
has been called down upon the
 Orthodox Christians affirm the Real Presence in
the Sacred Mysteries (consecrated bread and wine)
which they believe to be the actual Body and Blood of
Jesus Christ.
 The Eucharist is normally received in the context
of the Divine Liturgy.
 The bread and wine are believed to become the
genuine Body and Blood of the Christ Jesus through the
operation of the Holy Spirit.
 Communion
The holy giftsis given
only tofor baptized,
the Liturgychrismated
of the
Orthodox Christians
Presanctified Gifts or communion
who have ofprepared
the sick are
by specially
prayer, and confession
consecrated as needed, (different
for Thursday.
They aresick,
in an elaborately
etc. and are decorated
on case-a
by-case basis
container on the
by parish
altar often
in the
priest of
a church.
the Gifts withEastern
Generally, a spoon Christians
directly into dothe recipient's
not adore mouth
from the chalice.
consecrated bread outside
From baptism
the Liturgyyoungitself.
After and
children are
Eucharist has been
to tothethechalice
to receivethe priest
or the deacon has to eat and drink everything that is left.
 The historical position of the Anglican Communion
is found in the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1571, which state
"the Bread which we break is a partaking of the Body
of Christ"; and likewise that "the Cup of Blessing is a
partaking of the Blood of Christ" (Articles of Religion,
Article XXVIII: Of the Lord's Supper)
 The Articles also state that adoration, or worship
per se, of the consecrated elements was not
commanded by Christ. It also stated that those who
receive unworthily do not actually receive Christ but
rather their own condemnation.
 Anglicans generally and officially believe in the Real
Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but the specifics of that
belief range from transubstantiation, sometimes with
Eucharistic adoration (mainly Anglo-Catholics), to
something akin to a belief in a "pneumatic" presence,
which may or may not be tied to the Eucharistic elements
themselves (almost always "Low Church" or Evangelical
Anglicans). The normal range of Anglican belief ranges
from Objective Reality to Pious Silence, depending on the
individual Anglican's theology. There are also small
minorities on the one hand who affirm transubstantiation,
 Manner of the Real Presence
- Lutherans believe that the Body and Blood of
Christ are "truly and substantially present in, with
and under the forms" of the consecrated bread and
wine (the elements), so that communicants eat and
drink both the elements and the true Body and Blood
of Christ Himself (in the Sacrament of Holy
Communion whether they are believers or
The Lutheran doctrine of the Real Presence is formally
known as "the sacramental union."
 The liberal Lutheran Churches tend to practice open
term "Eucharist"
communion, inviting all who are baptized to participate.
While the wordLutheran Churches
"Eucharist" does such
appear asin early
Lutheran Lutherans
teachings, someareLutherans
more likely to practice
object closedit
to it because
communion human
emphasizes (or "close
response communion"), restricting
(thanksgiving) rather than
the to Lutheran
traditional those, who are more emphasis
theological or less in doctrinal
on God's
grace with them.
and activity in the sacrament.
In the Apology of the Augsburg Confession which
distinguishes "eucharistic sacrifice" from
"propitiatory sacrifice," Lutherans declare that
speaking of the Lord's Supper as Eucharist denies
that it is a propitiatory sacrifice that the church
offers to God to earn the forgiveness of sins:
... Piety looks at what is given and at
what is forgiven; it compares the greatness of God's
blessings and the greatness of our ills, our sin and
our death; and it give thanks. From this the term
"eucharist" arose in the church. The ceremony is
not a thanksgiving that can be transferred to others
ex opere operato [by the deed done] to merit the
forgiveness of sins for them or to free the souls of
the dead. The theory that a ceremony can benefit
 Methodists understand the eucharist to be an experience of
God's grace. God's unconditional love makes the table of God's
grace accessible
 There are various to all.
acceptable modes of receiving
the Eucharist for Methodists. Some Methodists kneel
at the altar, sometimes referred to as the
communion table. In other churches, communicants
stand or are served in the pew. Most Methodist
Churches use unfermented grape juice instead of
alcoholic wine (though there is no official restriction
for United Methodists), and either leavened yeast
bread or unleavened bread. The wine may be
distributed in small cups, but the use of a common
cup and the practice of communion by intinction
(where the bread is dipped into the common cup
and both elements are consumed together) is
 The United Methodist Church believes in the real presence
of Jesus Christ in Holy Communion:

Jesus Christ, who "is the reflection of God's glory and the exact
imprint of God's very being" (Hebrews 1:3), is truly present in
Holy Communion. Through Jesus Christ and in the power of the
Holy Spirit, God meets us at the Table. God, who has given the
sacraments to the church, acts in and through Holy
Communion. Christ is present through the community gathered
in Jesus' name (Matthew 18:20), through the Word proclaimed
and enacted, and through the elements of bread and wine
shared (1 Corinthians 11:23–26). The divine presence is a living
reality and can be experienced by participants; it is not a
 Many Reformed
Christians hold that
Christ's body and blood
are not actually present
in the Eucharist. The
elements are only
symbols of the reality,
which is spiritual
 Following a phrase of Augustine, the Calvinist view is that "no one
bears away from this Sacrament more than is gathered with the vessel
of faith." "The flesh and blood of Christ are no less truly given to the
unworthy than to God's elect believers", Calvin said. Faith, not a mere
mental apprehension, and the work of the Holy Spirit, are necessary for
the partaker to behold God incarnate, and in the same sense touch
Christ with their hands; so that by eating and drinking of bread and
wine Christ's actual presence penetrates to the heart of the believer
more nearly than food swallowed with the mouth can enter in.
 The 'experience' of Eucharist, or the Lord's Supper, has
traditionally been spoken of in the following way: the faithful believers
are 'lifted up' by the power of the Holy Spirit to feast with Christ in
heaven. The Lord's Supper in this way is truly a 'Spiritual' experience
as the Holy Spirit is directly involved in the action of 'Eucharist'.
 Among Latter Day Saints (or Mormons), the
Eucharist is partaken in remembrance of the blood
and body of Jesus Christ. It is viewed as a renewal of
the covenant made at baptism, which is to take upon
oneself the name of Jesus. As such, it is considered
efficacious only for baptized members in good
standing. However, the unbaptized are not forbidden
from communion, and it is traditional for children not
yet baptized (baptism occurs only after the age of
eight) to participate in communion in anticipation of
 Those who partake of the Sacrament promise always to
remember Jesus and keep his commandments. The prayer
also asks God the Father that each individual will be blest
with the Spirit of Christ.
 The Sacrament is offered weekly and all active members
are taught to prepare to partake of each opportunity. It is
considered to be a weekly renewal of a member's
commitment to follow Jesus Christ, and a plea for
forgiveness of sins.
 The Latter Day Saints do not believe in any kind of
literal presence. They view the bread and water as
symbolic of the body and blood of Christ.
 Some Protestant groups regard the Eucharist (also
called the Lord's Supper or the Lord's Table) as a
symbolic meal, a memorial of the Last Supper and the
Passion in which nothing miraculous occurs.

 This view is known as the Zwinglian view, after
Huldrych Zwingli, a Church leader in Zurich,
Switzerland during the Reformation. It is commonly
associated with the United Church of Christ, Baptists,
the Disciples of Christ and the Mennonites.
Because Jesus Christ is a person, theologies
regarding the Eucharist involve
consideration of the way in which the
communicant's personal relationship with
God is fed through this mystical meal.
However, debates over Eucharistic theology
in the West have centered not on the
personal aspects of Christ's presence but on
the metaphysical.
- Eucharist as the - varies according to - Daily Celebrations
principal service of the the orientation of the
Church and the highest individual parish,
ANGLICAN form of worship diocese or national

- The bread and "fruit
of the vine" as
BAPTIST unleavened bread;
Grape juice as the cup
EASTERN -The Eucharistic service is -2 Divisions:
CHRISTIANITY called the Divine Liturgy. Liturgy of the
Catechumens which consists of
introductory litanies, antiphons
and scripture readings,
culminating in a reading from one
of the Gospels and often, a
sermon; the second is the Liturgy
of the Faithful in which the
Eucharist s offered, consecrated,
and received as Holy
-Lord’s evening meal or -Song and Prayer -each year on the
Memorial -a discourse on the evening that
Jehovah's Witnesses - they are referred to as importance of the evening. corresponds to the
the "anointed" class and -A table is set with red wine Passover, Nisan 14,
are the only ones who and unleavened bread. according to the
should partake of the -A prayer is offered and the ancient Jewish
bread and wine. bread is circulated among the calendar.
-the bread stands for audience.
Jesus Christ's body which -Then another prayer is
he gave on behalf of offered, and the wine is
mankind, and that the circulated in the same
wine stands for his blood manner.
which redeems from sin. - After that, the evening
concludes with a final song
and prayer.
Latter-Day -the "Holy The Sacrament, both bread and water, is prepared by - Held at the
Saints (also Sacrament of priesthood holders prior to the beginning of the beginning of
known as the Lord's meeting. At the beginning of the Sacrament priests say sacrament
Mormonism) Supper", individual prayers to bless the bread and water. The meeting
bread is passed first after the priests have broken
slices of bread into small pieces. All in attendance are
provided an opportunity to partake of the Sacrament as
it is passed from row to row by priesthood holders.
After all have who desire partake, the bread is
returned to the priests, who then replace the bread
trays and cover them, while uncovering the water held
in trays. The priests then say the second prayer and the
water is then passed in small individual cups, just as
the bread was.
Mennonites/Anabap -members renew their covenant -Traditional Mennonite
tists with God and with each other churches have with footwashing
and the serving of the bread and
wine two parts to the
Communion service. In the more
modern groups, Communion is
only the serving of the Lord’s

Reformed/Presbyter -open to all baptized believers, -Eucharist is variously
ian and although often it is reserved administered
for those who are members in
good standing of a Bible-
believing Church, participation is
left as a matter of conscience.
LUTHERAN The bread can be a Some congregations In the Lutheran Book
thin wafer, or leavened celebrate the eucharist of Concord, in the
or unleavened. The in formal rites similar Apology of the
wine may be to the Roman Catholic Augsburg Confession,
administered via a and "high" Anglican article 24, paragraph 1
common cup (the services. Other it is asserted that
"chalice"), or through congregations may among Lutherans in
individual cups that celebrate the 1531 the eucharist was
may be either prefilled sacrament outside of celebrated weekly
or filled from the traditional liturgical
chalice during the worship services
distribution of the
Roman In the Latin Church, the administration of
Catholicism the Eucharist to children requires that they
have sufficient knowledge and careful
preparation so that they understand the
mystery of Christ according to their
capacity and are able to receive the Body
and Blood of Christ with appropriate faith
and devotion.

United The standard liturgies for the Eucharist (as grape juice is often used United
Methodist well as other services) are found in The instead of wine; Methodists
United Methodist Hymnal and The United Communicants may receive are
Methodist Book of Worship. standing, kneeling, or while encouraged to
seated. Gaining more wide celebrate the
acceptance is the practice of Eucharist
receiving by intinction every Sunday.
- still used by Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, the Oriental
Orthodox, Anglicans, United Methodists, and Lutherans. Most
Protestant traditions rarely use this term, preferring either
"Communion", "the Lord's Supper", or "the Breaking of

"The Lord's Supper“ (1 Corinthians 11:20)
- "The Lord's Supper" is also a common term among
Lutherans, as is "The Sacrament of the Altar". Other
Churches and denominations also use the term, but
generally not as their basic, routine term. The use is
predominant among Baptist groups, who generally avoid
"The Breaking of Bread“
-a phrase that appears in the New Testament in contexts in which, according
to some, it may refer to celebration of the Eucharist: Luke 24:35;Acts 2:42,
2:46, 20:7; 1 Corinthians 10:16.

"Communion" (from Latin communio, "sharing in common") or "Holy
-used, with different meanings, by Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Anglicans,
and many Protestants, including Lutherans. Catholics and Orthodox apply
this term not to the Eucharistic rite as a whole, but only to the partaking of
the consecrated bread and wine, and to these consecrated elements
themselves. In their understanding, it is possible to participate in the
celebration of the Eucharistic rite without necessarily "receiving Holy
Communion" (partaking of the consecrated elements. Groups that originated
in the Protestant Reformation usually apply this term instead to the whole
rite. The meaning of the term "Communion" here is multivocal in that it also
refers to the relationship of the participating Christians, as individuals or as
-used in the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Church, Anglo-
Catholicism, the Church of Sweden and some other forms of
Western Christianity. Among the many other terms used in
the Roman Catholic Church are "Holy Mass", "the Memorial
of the Passion, Death and Resurrection of the Lord", the
"Holy Sacrifice of the Mass", and the "Holy Mysteries".

The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament
of the Altar"
- are common terms for the consecrated elements,
especially when reserved in the Church tabernacle. In The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The
"The Divine Liturgy"
-is used in Byzantine Rite traditions. These also speak of "the
Divine Mysteries", especially in reference to the consecrated
elements, which they also call "the Holy Gifts".

In Oriental Orthodoxy the terms "Oblation" (Syriac, Coptic and
Armenian Churches) and "Consecration" (Ethiopian Church) are
used. Likewise, in the Gaelic language of Ireland and Scotland
the word "Aifreann", usually translated into English as "Mass", is
derived from Late Latin "Offerendum", meaning "oblation",

The many other expressions used include "Table of the Lord"
(cf. 1 Corinthians 10:16), the "Lord's Body" (cf. 1 Corinthians
There are two Eucharistic
elements, bread and wine,
which constitute the remote
matter of the Sacrament of
the Altar, while the
proximate matter can be
none other than the
Eucharistic appearances
under which the Body and
Blood of Christ are truly
The first element is wheaten bread.

As the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke
testify, Christ the Lord took bread into His hands,
blessed, and broke, saying: This is My body
(Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19);

According to John, the same Savior called Himself
bread in these words: I am the living bread, that
came down from heaven (John 6:41).
The sacramental bread must be wheaten.

It is to be observed that, with regard to the former
kinds, the words of the Savior show that the bread
should be wheaten.

According to the common usage, when we simply say
bread, we are sufficiently understood to mean
wheaten bread.

This is also declared by a figure in the Old Testament,
because the Lord commanded that the loaves of
The sacramental bread should be unleavened.

A doctrine which has been handed down by Apostolic
tradition and confirmed by the authority of the Catholic
Church - it may be easily inferred from the doings of Christ
the Lord that this bread should be unleavened.

It was consecrated and instituted by Him on the first day
of unleavened bread, on which it was not lawful for the
Jews to have anything leavened in their houses (Matt.
26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7).
Unleavened bread not essential.

This quality of the bread, however, is not to be deemed so
essential that, if it be wanting, the Sacrament cannot
exist; for both kinds are called by the one name and have
the true and proper nature of bread.

No one, however, is at liberty on his own private authority,
or rather presumption, to transgress the laudable rite of
his Church. And such departure is the less warrantable in
priests of the Latin Church, expressly obliged as they are
In the institution of this Sacrament our Lord and
Savior made use of wine has been at all times the
doctrine of the Catholic Church, for He Himself said: I
will not drink from henceforth of this fruit of the vine
until that day (Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25).

On this passage Chrysostom observes: He says, “Of
the fruit of the vine,” which certainly produced wine
not water; as if he had it in view, even at so early a
period, to uproot the heresy which asserted that in
these mysteries water alone is to be used.
Water should be mixed with the wine.

First, because Christ the Lord did so, as is proved by the
authority of the Councils and the testimony of St. Cyprian;
next, because by this mixture is renewed the recollection
of the blood and water that issued from His side.

Water, also, as we read in the Apocalypse (17:15), signify
the people; and hence, water mixed with the wine signifies
the union of the faithful with Christ their Head. This rite,
derived as it is from Apostolic tradition, the Catholic
In the first place, then, they signify to us Christ, as
the true life of men; for our Lord Himself says: My
flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed
(John 6:55).

These very elements serve also somewhat to suggest
to men the truth of the Real Presence of the Body
and Blood of the Lord in the Sacrament.
Observing, as we do, that bread and wine are every
day changed by the power of nature into human flesh
and blood, we are led the more easily by this analogy
to believe that the substance of the bread and wine
is changed, by the heavenly benediction, into the real
Flesh and real Blood of Christ.
This admirable change of the elements also helps to
shadow forth what takes place in the soul.

Although no change of the bread and wine appears
externally, yet their substance is truly changed into
the flesh and blood of Christ.

In like manner, although in us nothing appears
changed, yet we are renewed inwardly unto life,
when we receive in the Sacrament of the Eucharist
the true life.
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

We are then taught by the holy Evangelists, Matthew
and Luke, and also by the Apostle, that the form
consists of these words: This is my body; for it is
written: Whilst they were at supper, Jesus took bread,
and blessed it, and broke, and gave to his disciples,
and said: Take and eat, This is My Body (Matt.
26:26; Mark 14:23; Luke 22:10; 1 Cor. 11:24).
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

This form of consecration having been observed by Christ
the Lord has been always used by the Catholic Church.

Do this for a commemoration of Me (Luke 22:19).

For what the Lord enjoined was not only what He had
done, but also what He had said; and especially is this
true, since the words were uttered not only to signify, but
also to accomplish.
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

The form is that which signifies what is accomplished
in the Sacrament; but as the preceding words signify
and declare what takes place in the Eucharist, that is,
the conversion of the bread into the true Body of our
Lord, it therefore follows that these very words
constitute the form.
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

With regard to the consecration of the wine, the
priest ought of necessity to be well acquainted with,
and well understand its form.
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

We are then firmly to believe that it consists in the
following words: This is the chalice of My Blood,
of the new and eternal testament, the mystery
of faith, which shall be shed for you and for
many, to the remission of sins.

Of these words, the greater part are taken from
Scripture; but some have been preserved in the
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

The form to be used (in the consecration) of this
element evidently consists of those words which
signify that the substance of the wine is changed into
the Blood of our Lord.

Since, therefore, the words already cited clearly
declare this, it is plain that no other words constitute
the form.
Form to be used in the Consecration of the

Admirable fruits of the Blood shed in the Passion of
our Lord:

*access to the eternal inheritance

*access to righteousness by the mystery of faith

*remission of sins.
The necessity of means (necessitas medii)


The necessity of precept (necessitas
 a thing or action is necessary because without it
a given end cannot be attained;
 the eye, e.g. is necessary for vision.

Necessity of Precept

 imposed by the free will of a superior,
e.g. the necessity of fasting.
It is easy
to prove that
is, like
in the
case of
infants Holy
for them
as a means
is not
of salvation.
to salvation, either as a means or as of precept. Since they
 The not as yetofattained
Council Trent underto the use
pain of of reason, they
anathema, are free
solemnly from
rejects the
a necessity of and
positive laws. that the custom of the primitive Church of
giving Holy Communion to children was not based upon the erroneous
belief of its necessity to salvation, but upon the circumstances of the
 According to St. Paul's teaching (Romans 8:1) there is "no
condemnation" for those who have been baptized, every child that
dies in its baptismal innocence, even without Communion, must go
straight to heaven.
 Communion is prescribed for adults, not only by the law of the
Church, but also by a Divine command.
 There is a moral necessity on the part of adults to receive Holy
Communion, as a means, for instance, of overcoming violent temptation,
or as a viaticum for persons in danger of death.
 Eminent divines, like Francisco Suárez, claim that the Eucharist, if not
absolutely necessary, is at least a relatively and morally necessary means
to salvation, in the sense that no adult can long sustain his spiritual,
supernatural life who neglects on principle to approach Holy Communion.
The Fourth Lateran
Council (1215)

- confirmed the ancient
Catholic teaching, that "no
one but the priest
[sacerdos], regularly
ordained according to
the keys of the Church,
has the power of
In general it is of Divine
right, that the laity
should as a rule
receive only from the
consecrated hand of
the priest (cf. Trent,
Sess. XIII, cap. viii).
According to a decision of
the Sacred Congregation
of Rites (25 Feb., 1777),
still in force, the deacon
is to administer Holy
Communion only in
case of necessity and
with the approval of
his bishop or his
The two conditions:

*Objective Capacity

*Subjective worthiness
Objective Capacity
-is of dogmatic interest

*recipient be a "human being", since it was for mankind only that
Christ instituted this Eucharistic food of souls and commanded its

*the recipient be still in the "state of pilgrimage" to the next life
(status viatoris), since it is only in the present life that man can
validly Communicate.

*recipient must be baptized, without which no other sacrament
can be validly received; for in its very concept baptism is the
"spiritual door" to the means of grace contained in the Church.

Rica Pauline San Jose
Darlene Tala
Meynard Ventura
Kathlyn Villalobos